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Toward the next generation of recommender systems: A survey of the stateoftheart and possible extensions
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON KNOWLEDGE AND DATA ENGINEERING
, 2005
"... This paper presents an overview of the field of recommender systems and describes the current generation of recommendation methods that are usually classified into the following three main categories: contentbased, collaborative, and hybrid recommendation approaches. This paper also describes vario ..."
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Cited by 1491 (23 self)
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This paper presents an overview of the field of recommender systems and describes the current generation of recommendation methods that are usually classified into the following three main categories: contentbased, collaborative, and hybrid recommendation approaches. This paper also describes various limitations of current recommendation methods and discusses possible extensions that can improve recommendation capabilities and make recommender systems applicable to an even broader range of applications. These extensions include, among others, an improvement of understanding of users and items, incorporation of the contextual information into the recommendation process, support for multcriteria ratings, and a provision of more flexible and less intrusive types of recommendations.
Probabilistic Latent Semantic Indexing
, 1999
"... Probabilistic Latent Semantic Indexing is a novel approach to automated document indexing which is based on a statistical latent class model for factor analysis of count data. Fitted from a training corpus of text documents by a generalization of the Expectation Maximization algorithm, the utilized ..."
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Cited by 1227 (10 self)
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Probabilistic Latent Semantic Indexing is a novel approach to automated document indexing which is based on a statistical latent class model for factor analysis of count data. Fitted from a training corpus of text documents by a generalization of the Expectation Maximization algorithm, the utilized model is able to deal with domainspecific synonymy as well as with polysemous words. In contrast to standard Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) by Singular Value Decomposition, the probabilistic variant has a solid statistical foundation and defines a proper generative data model. Retrieval experiments on a number of test collections indicate substantial performance gains over direct term matching methodsaswell as over LSI. In particular, the combination of models with different dimensionalities has proven to be advantageous.
SemiSupervised Learning Literature Survey
, 2006
"... We review the literature on semisupervised learning, which is an area in machine learning and more generally, artificial intelligence. There has been a whole
spectrum of interesting ideas on how to learn from both labeled and unlabeled data, i.e. semisupervised learning. This document is a chapter ..."
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Cited by 781 (8 self)
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We review the literature on semisupervised learning, which is an area in machine learning and more generally, artificial intelligence. There has been a whole
spectrum of interesting ideas on how to learn from both labeled and unlabeled data, i.e. semisupervised learning. This document is a chapter excerpt from the author’s
doctoral thesis (Zhu, 2005). However the author plans to update the online version frequently to incorporate the latest development in the field. Please obtain the latest
version at http://www.cs.wisc.edu/~jerryzhu/pub/ssl_survey.pdf
Probabilistic Matrix Factorization
"... Many existing approaches to collaborative filtering can neither handle very large datasets nor easily deal with users who have very few ratings. In this paper we present the Probabilistic Matrix Factorization (PMF) model which scales linearly with the number of observations and, more importantly, pe ..."
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Cited by 282 (5 self)
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Many existing approaches to collaborative filtering can neither handle very large datasets nor easily deal with users who have very few ratings. In this paper we present the Probabilistic Matrix Factorization (PMF) model which scales linearly with the number of observations and, more importantly, performs well on the large, sparse, and very imbalanced Netflix dataset. We further extend the PMF model to include an adaptive prior on the model parameters and show how the model capacity can be controlled automatically. Finally, we introduce a constrained version of the PMF model that is based on the assumption that users who have rated similar sets of movies are likely to have similar preferences. The resulting model is able to generalize considerably better for users with very few ratings. When the predictions of multiple PMF models are linearly combined with the predictions of Restricted Boltzmann Machines models, we achieve an error rate of 0.8861, that is nearly 7 % better than the score of Netflix’s own system. 1
Reading Tea Leaves: How Humans Interpret Topic Models
"... Probabilistic topic models are a popular tool for the unsupervised analysis of text, providing both a predictive model of future text and a latent topic representation of the corpus. Practitioners typically assume that the latent space is semantically meaningful. It is used to check models, summariz ..."
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Cited by 237 (26 self)
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Probabilistic topic models are a popular tool for the unsupervised analysis of text, providing both a predictive model of future text and a latent topic representation of the corpus. Practitioners typically assume that the latent space is semantically meaningful. It is used to check models, summarize the corpus, and guide exploration of its contents. However, whether the latent space is interpretable is in need of quantitative evaluation. In this paper, we present new quantitative methods for measuring semantic meaning in inferred topics. We back these measures with largescale user studies, showing that they capture aspects of the model that are undetected by previous measures of model quality based on heldout likelihood. Surprisingly, topic models which perform better on heldout likelihood may infer less semantically meaningful topics. 1
Probabilistic topic models
 IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
, 2010
"... Probabilistic topic models are a suite of algorithms whose aim is to discover the ..."
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Cited by 234 (6 self)
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Probabilistic topic models are a suite of algorithms whose aim is to discover the
Restricted Boltzmann machines for collaborative filtering
 In Machine Learning, Proceedings of the Twentyfourth International Conference (ICML 2004). ACM
, 2007
"... Most of the existing approaches to collaborative filtering cannot handle very large data sets. In this paper we show how a class of twolayer undirected graphical models, called Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBM’s), can be used to model tabular data, such as user’s ratings of movies. We present eff ..."
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Cited by 221 (12 self)
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Most of the existing approaches to collaborative filtering cannot handle very large data sets. In this paper we show how a class of twolayer undirected graphical models, called Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBM’s), can be used to model tabular data, such as user’s ratings of movies. We present efficient learning and inference procedures for this class of models and demonstrate that RBM’s can be successfully applied to the Netflix data set, containing over 100 million user/movie ratings. We also show that RBM’s slightly outperform carefullytuned SVD models. When the predictions of multiple RBM models and multiple SVD models are linearly combined, we achieve an error rate that is well over 6 % better than the score of Netflix’s own system. 1.
The Missing Link  A Probabilistic Model of Document Content and Hypertext Connectivity
, 2001
"... We describe a joint probabilistic model for modeling the contents and interconnectivity of document collections such as sets of web pages or research paper archives. The model is based on a probabilistic factor decomposition and allows identifying principal topics of the collection as well as autho ..."
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Cited by 218 (3 self)
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We describe a joint probabilistic model for modeling the contents and interconnectivity of document collections such as sets of web pages or research paper archives. The model is based on a probabilistic factor decomposition and allows identifying principal topics of the collection as well as authoritative documents within those topics. Furthermore, the relationships between topics is mapped out in order to build a predictive model of link content. Among the many applications of this approach are information retrieval and search, topic identification, query disambiguation, focused web crawling, web authoring, and bibliometric analysis.
Bayesian probabilistic matrix factorization using markov chain monte carlo
 In ICML ’08: Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Machine Learning
, 2008
"... Lowrank matrix approximation methods provide one of the simplest and most effective approaches to collaborative filtering. Such models are usually fitted to data by finding a MAP estimate of the model parameters, a procedure that can be performed efficiently even on very large datasets. However, un ..."
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Cited by 185 (4 self)
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Lowrank matrix approximation methods provide one of the simplest and most effective approaches to collaborative filtering. Such models are usually fitted to data by finding a MAP estimate of the model parameters, a procedure that can be performed efficiently even on very large datasets. However, unless the regularization parameters are tuned carefully, this approach is prone to overfitting because it finds a single point estimate of the parameters. In this paper we present a fully Bayesian treatment of the Probabilistic Matrix Factorization (PMF) model in which model capacity is controlled automatically by integrating over all model parameters and hyperparameters. We show that Bayesian PMF models can be efficiently trained using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods by applying them to the Netflix dataset, which consists of over 100 million movie ratings. The resulting models achieve significantly higher prediction accuracy than PMF models trained using MAP estimation. 1.