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Cortical surfacebased analysis II: Inflation, flattening, and a surfacebased coordinate system
 NEUROIMAGE
, 1999
"... The surface of the human cerebral cortex is a highly folded sheet with the majority of its surface area buried within folds. As such, it is a difficult domain for computational as well as visualization purposes. We have therefore designed a set of procedures for modifying the representation of the c ..."
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Cited by 738 (57 self)
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The surface of the human cerebral cortex is a highly folded sheet with the majority of its surface area buried within folds. As such, it is a difficult domain for computational as well as visualization purposes. We have therefore designed a set of procedures for modifying the representation of the cortical surface to (i) inflate it so that activity buried inside sulci may be visualized, (ii) cut and flatten an entire hemisphere, and (iii) transform a hemisphere into a simple parameterizable surface such as a sphere for the purpose of establishing a surfacebased coordinate system.
Cortical surfacebased analysis. I. Segmentation and surface reconstruction
 Neuroimage
, 1999
"... Several properties of the cerebral cortex, including its columnar and laminar organization, as well as the topographic organization of cortical areas, can only be properly understood in the context of the intrinsic twodimensional structure of the cortical surface. In order to study such cortical pr ..."
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Cited by 450 (42 self)
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Several properties of the cerebral cortex, including its columnar and laminar organization, as well as the topographic organization of cortical areas, can only be properly understood in the context of the intrinsic twodimensional structure of the cortical surface. In order to study such cortical properties in humans, it is necessary to obtain an accurate and explicit representation of the cortical surface in individual subjects. Here we describe a set of automated procedures for obtaining accurate reconstructions of the cortical surface, which have been applied to data from more than 100 subjects, requiring little or no manual intervention. Automated routines for unfolding and flattening the cortical surface are described in a companion paper. These procedures allow for the routine use of cortical surfacebased analysis and visualization methods in functional brain imaging.
Surface Parameterization: a Tutorial and Survey
 In Advances in Multiresolution for Geometric Modelling, Mathematics and Visualization
, 2005
"... Summary. This paper provides a tutorial and survey of methods for parameterizing surfaces with a view to applications in geometric modelling and computer graphics. We gather various concepts from differential geometry which are relevant to surface mapping and use them to understand the strengths and ..."
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Cited by 239 (7 self)
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Summary. This paper provides a tutorial and survey of methods for parameterizing surfaces with a view to applications in geometric modelling and computer graphics. We gather various concepts from differential geometry which are relevant to surface mapping and use them to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the many methods for parameterizing piecewise linear surfaces and their relationship to one another. 1
Genus zero surface conformal mapping and its application to brain surface mapping
 IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
, 2004
"... Abstract—We developed a general method for global conformal parameterizations based on the structure of the cohomology group of holomorphic oneforms for surfaces with or without boundaries (Gu and Yau, 2002), (Gu and Yau, 2003). For genus zero surfaces, our algorithm can find a unique mapping betwe ..."
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Cited by 188 (78 self)
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Abstract—We developed a general method for global conformal parameterizations based on the structure of the cohomology group of holomorphic oneforms for surfaces with or without boundaries (Gu and Yau, 2002), (Gu and Yau, 2003). For genus zero surfaces, our algorithm can find a unique mapping between any two genus zero manifolds by minimizing the harmonic energy of the map. In this paper, we apply the algorithm to the cortical surface matching problem. We use a mesh structure to represent the brain surface. Further constraints are added to ensure that the conformal map is unique. Empirical tests on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data show that the mappings preserve angular relationships, are stable in MRIs acquired at different times, and are robust to differences in data triangulation, and resolution. Compared with other brain surface conformal mapping algorithms, our algorithm is more stable and has good extensibility. Index Terms—Brain mapping, conformal map, landmark matching, spherical harmonic transformation. I.
Automated Manifold Surgery: Constructing Geometrically Accurate and Topologically Correct Models of the Human Cerebral Cortex
, 2001
"... Highly accurate surface models of the cerebral cortex are becoming increasingly important as tools in the investigation of the functional organization of the human brain. The construction of such models is difficult using current neuroimaging technology due to the high degree of cortical folding. E ..."
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Cited by 167 (25 self)
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Highly accurate surface models of the cerebral cortex are becoming increasingly important as tools in the investigation of the functional organization of the human brain. The construction of such models is difficult using current neuroimaging technology due to the high degree of cortical folding. Even single voxel misclassifications can result in erroneous connections being created between adjacent banks of a sulcus, resulting in a topologically inaccurate model. These topological defects cause the cortical model to no longer be homeomorphic to a sheet, preventing the accurate inflation, flattening, or spherical morphing of the reconstructed cortex. Surface deformation techniques can guarantee the topological correctness of a model, but are timeconsuming and may result in geometrically inaccurate models. In order to address this need we have developed a technique for taking a model of the cortex, detecting and fixing the topological defects while leaving that majority of the model intact, resulting in a surface that is both geometrically accurate and topologically correct.
ThreeDimensional Face Recognition
, 2005
"... An expressioninvariant 3D face recognition approach is presented. Our basic assumption is that facial expressions can be modelled as isometries of the facial surface. This allows to construct expressioninvariant representations of faces using the bendinginvariant canonical forms approach. The re ..."
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Cited by 150 (24 self)
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An expressioninvariant 3D face recognition approach is presented. Our basic assumption is that facial expressions can be modelled as isometries of the facial surface. This allows to construct expressioninvariant representations of faces using the bendinginvariant canonical forms approach. The result is an efficient and accurate face recognition algorithm, robust to facial expressions, that can distinguish between identical twins (the first two authors). We demonstrate a prototype system based on the proposed algorithm and compare its performance to classical face recognition methods. The numerical methods employed by our approach do not require the facial surface explicitly. The surface gradients field, or the surface metric, are sufficient for constructing the expressioninvariant representation of any given face. It allows us to perform the 3D face recognition task while avoiding the surface reconstruction stage.
Expressioninvariant 3D face recognition
, 2003
"... We present a novel 3D face recognition approach based on geometric invariants introduced by Elad and Kimmel. The key idea of the proposed algorithm is a representation of the facial surface, invariant to isometric deformations, such as those resulting from different expressions and postures of the ..."
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Cited by 108 (17 self)
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We present a novel 3D face recognition approach based on geometric invariants introduced by Elad and Kimmel. The key idea of the proposed algorithm is a representation of the facial surface, invariant to isometric deformations, such as those resulting from different expressions and postures of the face. The obtained geometric invariants allow mapping 2D facial texture images into special images that incorporate the 3D geometry of the face. These signature images are then decomposed into their principal components. The result is an efficient and accurate face recognition algorithm that is robust to facial expressions. We demonstrate the results of our method and compare it to existing 2D and 3D face recognition algorithms.
Texture mapping using surface flattening via multidimensional scaling
 IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
, 2002
"... AbstractÐWe present a novel technique for texture mapping on arbitrary surfaces with minimal distortions by preserving the local and global structure of the texture. The recent introduction of the fast marching method on triangulated surfaces made it possible to compute a geodesic distance map from ..."
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Cited by 104 (26 self)
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AbstractÐWe present a novel technique for texture mapping on arbitrary surfaces with minimal distortions by preserving the local and global structure of the texture. The recent introduction of the fast marching method on triangulated surfaces made it possible to compute a geodesic distance map from a given surface point in O…n lg n † operations, where n is the number of triangles that represent the surface. We use this method to design a surface flattening approach based on multidimensional scaling �MDS). MDS is a family of methods that map a set of points into a finite dimensional flat �Euclidean) domain, where the only given data is the corresponding distances between every pair of points. The MDS mapping yields minimal changes of the distances between the corresponding points. We then solve an ªinverseº problem and map a flat texture patch onto the curved surface while preserving the structure of the texture. Index TermsÐTexture mapping, multidimensional scaling, fast marching method, Geodesic distance, Euclidean distance. æ 1
Efficient Computation of IsometryInvariant Distances between Surfaces
"... We present an efficient computational framework for isometryinvariant comparison of smooth surfaces. We formulate the GromovHausdorff distance as a multidimensional scaling (MDS)like continuous optimization problem. In order to construct an efficient optimization scheme, we develop a numerical ..."
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Cited by 93 (25 self)
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We present an efficient computational framework for isometryinvariant comparison of smooth surfaces. We formulate the GromovHausdorff distance as a multidimensional scaling (MDS)like continuous optimization problem. In order to construct an efficient optimization scheme, we develop a numerical tool for interpolating geodesic distances on a sampled surface from precomputed geodesic distances between the samples. For isometryinvariant comparison of surfaces in the case of partially missing data, we present the partial embedding distance, which is computed using a similar scheme. The main idea is finding a minimumdistortion mapping from one surface to another, while considering only relevant geodesic distances. We discuss numerical implementation issues and present experimental results that demonstrate its accuracy and efficiency.
An Active Contour Model For Mapping The Cortex
 IEEE TRANS. ON MEDICAL IMAGING
, 1995
"... A new active contour model for finding and mapping the outer cortex in brain images is developed. A crosssection of the brain cortex is modeled as a ribbon, and a constant speed mapping of its spine is sought. A variational formulation, an associated force balance condition, and a numerical approac ..."
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Cited by 91 (15 self)
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A new active contour model for finding and mapping the outer cortex in brain images is developed. A crosssection of the brain cortex is modeled as a ribbon, and a constant speed mapping of its spine is sought. A variational formulation, an associated force balance condition, and a numerical approach are proposed to achieve this goal. The primary difference between this formulation and that of snakes is in the specification of the external force acting on the active contour. A study of the uniqueness and fidelity of solutions is made through convexity and frequency domain analyses, and a criterion for selection of the regularization coefficient is developed. Examples demonstrating the performance of this method on simulated and real data are provided.