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Metaheuristics in combinatorial optimization: Overview and conceptual comparison
 ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 2003
"... The field of metaheuristics for the application to combinatorial optimization problems is a rapidly growing field of research. This is due to the importance of combinatorial optimization problems for the scientific as well as the industrial world. We give a survey of the nowadays most important meta ..."
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Cited by 294 (16 self)
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The field of metaheuristics for the application to combinatorial optimization problems is a rapidly growing field of research. This is due to the importance of combinatorial optimization problems for the scientific as well as the industrial world. We give a survey of the nowadays most important metaheuristics from a conceptual point of view. We outline the different components and concepts that are used in the different metaheuristics in order to analyze their similarities and differences. Two very important concepts in metaheuristics are intensification and diversification. These are the two forces that largely determine the behaviour of a metaheuristic. They are in some way contrary but also complementary to each other. We introduce a framework, that we call the I&D frame, in order to put different intensification and diversification components into relation with each other. Outlining the advantages and disadvantages of different metaheuristic approaches we conclude by pointing out the importance of hybridization of metaheuristics as well as the integration of metaheuristics and other methods for optimization.
Evolutionary computation: Comments on the history and current state
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION
, 1997
"... Evolutionary computation has started to receive significant attention during the last decade, although the origins can be traced back to the late 1950’s. This article surveys the history as well as the current state of this rapidly growing field. We describe the purpose, the general structure, and ..."
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Cited by 273 (0 self)
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Evolutionary computation has started to receive significant attention during the last decade, although the origins can be traced back to the late 1950’s. This article surveys the history as well as the current state of this rapidly growing field. We describe the purpose, the general structure, and the working principles of different approaches, including genetic algorithms (GA) [with links to genetic programming (GP) and classifier systems (CS)], evolution strategies (ES), and evolutionary programming (EP) by analysis and comparison of their most important constituents (i.e., representations, variation operators, reproduction, and selection mechanism). Finally, we give a brief overview on the manifold of application domains, although this necessarily must remain incomplete.
On Evolution, Search, Optimization, Genetic Algorithms and Martial Arts  Towards Memetic Algorithms
, 1989
"... Short abstract, isn't it? P.A.C.S. numbers 05.20, 02.50, 87.10 1 Introduction Large Numbers "...the optimal tour displayed (see Figure 6) is the possible unique tour having one arc fixed from among 10 655 tours that are possible among 318 points and have one arc fixed. Assuming that ..."
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Cited by 241 (10 self)
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Short abstract, isn't it? P.A.C.S. numbers 05.20, 02.50, 87.10 1 Introduction Large Numbers "...the optimal tour displayed (see Figure 6) is the possible unique tour having one arc fixed from among 10 655 tours that are possible among 318 points and have one arc fixed. Assuming that one could possibly enumerate 10 9 tours per second on a computer it would thus take roughly 10 639 years of computing to establish the optimality of this tour by exhaustive enumeration." This quote shows the real difficulty of a combinatorial optimization problem. The huge number of configurations is the primary difficulty when dealing with one of these problems. The quote belongs to M.W Padberg and M. Grotschel, Chap. 9., "Polyhedral computations", from the book The Traveling Salesman Problem: A Guided tour of Combinatorial Optimization [124]. It is interesting to compare the number of configurations of realworld problems in combinatorial optimization with those large numbers arising in Cosmol...
Learning sequential decision rules using simulation models and competition
 Machine Learning
, 1990
"... Abstract. The problem of learning decision rules for sequential tasks is addressed, focusing on the problem of learning tactical decision rules from a simple flight simulator. The learning method relies on the notion of competition and employs genetic algorithms to search the space of decision polic ..."
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Cited by 156 (38 self)
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Abstract. The problem of learning decision rules for sequential tasks is addressed, focusing on the problem of learning tactical decision rules from a simple flight simulator. The learning method relies on the notion of competition and employs genetic algorithms to search the space of decision policies. Several experiments are presented that address issues arising from differences between the simulation model on which learning occurs and the target environment on which the decision rules are ultimately tested. Key words: sequential decision rules, competitionbased learning, genetic algorithms
An Overview of Genetic Algorithms: Part 1, Fundamentals
, 1993
"... this article may be reproduced for commercial purposes. 1 Introduction ..."
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Cited by 122 (1 self)
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this article may be reproduced for commercial purposes. 1 Introduction
Genetic Hybrids for the Quadratic Assignment Problem
 DIMACS Series in Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science
, 1993
"... . A new hybrid procedure that combines genetic operators to existing heuristics is proposed to solve the Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP). Genetic operators are found to improve the performance of both local search and tabu search. Some guidelines are also given to design good hybrid schemes. Thes ..."
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Cited by 112 (0 self)
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. A new hybrid procedure that combines genetic operators to existing heuristics is proposed to solve the Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP). Genetic operators are found to improve the performance of both local search and tabu search. Some guidelines are also given to design good hybrid schemes. These hybrid algorithms are then used to improve on the best known solutions of many test problems in the literature. 1. Introduction The quadratic assignment problem (QAP) can be stated as: min OE2P (n) n X i=1 n X j=1 a ij b OE(i)OE(j) ; where A = (a ij ) and B = (b kl ) are two n \Theta n matrices and P (n) is the set of all permutations of f1; :::; ng. Matrix A is often referred to as a distance matrix between sites, and B as a flow matrix between objects. In most cases, the matrices A and B are symmetrical with a null diagonal. A permutation may then be interpreted as an assignment of objects to sites with a quadratic cost associated to it. There are many applications that can be fo...
Deterministic JobShop Scheduling: Past, Present and Future
 European Journal of Operational Research
, 1998
"... : Due to the stubborn nature of the deterministic jobshop scheduling problem many solutions proposed are of hybrid construction cutting across the traditional disciplines. The problem has been investigated from a variety of perspectives resulting in several analytical techniques combining generic ..."
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Cited by 105 (2 self)
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: Due to the stubborn nature of the deterministic jobshop scheduling problem many solutions proposed are of hybrid construction cutting across the traditional disciplines. The problem has been investigated from a variety of perspectives resulting in several analytical techniques combining generic as well as problem specific strategies. We seek to assess a subclass of this problem in which the objective is minimising makespan, by providing an overview of the history, the techniques used and the researchers involved. The sense and direction of their work is evaluated by assessing the reported results of their techniques on the available benchmark problems. From these results the current situation and pointers for future work are provided. KEYWORDS: Scheduling Theory; JobShop; Review; Computational Study; 1. INTRODUCTION Current market trends such as consumer demand for variety, shorter product life cycles and competitive pressure to reduce costs have resulted in the need for zero i...
Evolutionary Algorithms for Reinforcement Learning
 Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
, 1999
"... There are two distinct approaches to solving reinforcement learning problems, namely, searching in value function space and searching in policy space. Temporal difference methods and evolutionary algorithms are wellknown examples of these approaches. Kaelbling, Littman and Moore recently provided a ..."
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Cited by 103 (1 self)
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There are two distinct approaches to solving reinforcement learning problems, namely, searching in value function space and searching in policy space. Temporal difference methods and evolutionary algorithms are wellknown examples of these approaches. Kaelbling, Littman and Moore recently provided an informative survey of temporal difference methods. This article focuses on the application of evolutionary algorithms to the reinforcement learning problem, emphasizing alternative policy representations, credit assignment methods, and problemspecific genetic operators. Strengths and weaknesses of the evolutionary approach to reinforcement learning are presented, along with a survey of representative applications. 1. Introduction Kaelbling, Littman, and Moore (1996) and more recently Sutton and Barto (1998) provide informative surveys of the field of reinforcement learning (RL). They characterize two classes of methods for reinforcement learning: methods that search the space of value fu...
Adaptive and selfadaptive evolutionary computation,” in Computational Intelligence: A Dynamic System Perspective
, 1995
"... This paper reviews the various studies that have introduced adaptive and selfadaptive parameters into Evolutionary Computations. A formal definition of an adaptive evolutionary computation is provided with an analysis of the types of adaptive and selfadaptive parameter update rules currently in us ..."
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Cited by 95 (3 self)
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This paper reviews the various studies that have introduced adaptive and selfadaptive parameters into Evolutionary Computations. A formal definition of an adaptive evolutionary computation is provided with an analysis of the types of adaptive and selfadaptive parameter update rules currently in use. Previous studies are reviewed and placed into a categorization that helps to illustrate their similarities and differences.