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A practical public key cryptosystem provably secure against adaptive chosen ciphertext attack
 CRYPTO '98
, 1998
"... A new public key cryptosystem is proposed and analyzed. The scheme is quite practical, and is provably secure against adaptive chosen ciphertext attack under standard intractability assumptions. There appears to be no previous cryptosystem in the literature that enjoys both of these properties simu ..."
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Cited by 540 (17 self)
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A new public key cryptosystem is proposed and analyzed. The scheme is quite practical, and is provably secure against adaptive chosen ciphertext attack under standard intractability assumptions. There appears to be no previous cryptosystem in the literature that enjoys both of these properties simultaneously.
The exact security of digital signatures  How to sign with RSA and Rabin
, 1996
"... We describe an RSAbased signing scheme called PSS which combines essentially optimal efficiency with attractive security properties. Signing takes one RSA decryption plus some hashing, ..."
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Cited by 386 (17 self)
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We describe an RSAbased signing scheme called PSS which combines essentially optimal efficiency with attractive security properties. Signing takes one RSA decryption plus some hashing,
Optimistic fair exchange of digital signatures
 IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
, 1998
"... Abstract. We present a new protocol that allows two players to exchange digital signatures over the Internet in a fair way, so that either each player gets the other’s signature, or neither player does. The obvious application is where the signatures represent items of value, for example, an elect ..."
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Cited by 290 (10 self)
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Abstract. We present a new protocol that allows two players to exchange digital signatures over the Internet in a fair way, so that either each player gets the other’s signature, or neither player does. The obvious application is where the signatures represent items of value, for example, an electronic check or airline ticket. The protocol can also be adapted to exchange encrypted data. The protocol relies on a trusted third party, but is “optimistic, ” in that the third party is only needed in cases where one player attempts to cheat or simply crashes. A key feature of our protocol is that a player can always force a timely and fair termination, without the cooperation of the other player. 1
Chosen Ciphertext Attacks Against Protocols Based on the RSA Encryption Standard PKCS1
, 1998
"... This paper introduces a new adaptive chosen ciphertext attack against certain protocols based on RSA. We show that an RSA privatekey operation can be performed if the attacker has access to an oracle that, for any chosen ciphertext, returns only one bit telling whether the ciphertext corresponds to ..."
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Cited by 288 (1 self)
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This paper introduces a new adaptive chosen ciphertext attack against certain protocols based on RSA. We show that an RSA privatekey operation can be performed if the attacker has access to an oracle that, for any chosen ciphertext, returns only one bit telling whether the ciphertext corresponds to some unknown block of data encrypted using PKCS #1. An example of a protocol susceptible to our attackisSSL V.3.0.
Design and Analysis of Practical PublicKey Encryption Schemes Secure against Adaptive Chosen Ciphertext Attack
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 2001
"... A new public key encryption scheme, along with several variants, is proposed and analyzed. The scheme and its variants are quite practical, and are proved secure against adaptive chosen ciphertext attack under standard intractability assumptions. These appear to be the first publickey encryption sc ..."
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Cited by 231 (11 self)
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A new public key encryption scheme, along with several variants, is proposed and analyzed. The scheme and its variants are quite practical, and are proved secure against adaptive chosen ciphertext attack under standard intractability assumptions. These appear to be the first publickey encryption schemes in the literature that are simultaneously practical and provably secure.
Twenty years of attacks on the RSA cryptosystem.
 Notices of the AMS,
, 1999
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The Security of Cipher Block Chaining
, 1994
"... The Cipher Block Chaining  Message Authentication Code (CBC MAC) specifies that a message x = x 1 \Delta \Delta \Delta xm be authenticated among parties who share a secret key a by tagging x with a prefix of f (m) a (x) def = f a (f a (\Delta \Delta \Delta f a (f a (x 1 )\Phix 2 )\Phi \Delta ..."
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Cited by 171 (28 self)
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The Cipher Block Chaining  Message Authentication Code (CBC MAC) specifies that a message x = x 1 \Delta \Delta \Delta xm be authenticated among parties who share a secret key a by tagging x with a prefix of f (m) a (x) def = f a (f a (\Delta \Delta \Delta f a (f a (x 1 )\Phix 2 )\Phi \Delta \Delta \Delta \Phix m\Gamma1 )\Phix m ) ; where f is some underlying block cipher (eg. f = DES). This method is a pervasively used international and U.S. standard. We provide its first formal justification, showing the following general lemma: that cipher block chaining a pseudorandom function gives a pseudorandom function. Underlying our results is a technical lemma of independent interest, bounding the success probability of a computationally unbounded adversary in distinguishing between a random mlbit to lbit function and the CBC MAC of a random lbit to lbit function. Advanced Networking Laboratory, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, PO Box 704, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA. em...
Key Agreement Protocols and their Security Analysis
, 1997
"... This paper proposes new protocols for two goals: authenticated key agreement and authenticated key agreement with key confirmation in the asymmetric (publickey) setting. A formal ..."
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Cited by 166 (6 self)
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This paper proposes new protocols for two goals: authenticated key agreement and authenticated key agreement with key confirmation in the asymmetric (publickey) setting. A formal
Making mix nets robust for electronic voting by randomized partial checking
 In USENIX Security Symposium
, 2002
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Towards realizing random oracles: Hash functions that hide all partial information
, 1997
"... The random oracle model is a very convenient setting for designing cryptographic protocols. In this idealized model all parties have access to a common, public random function, called a random oracle. Protocols in this model are often very simple and efficient; also the analysis is often clearer. ..."
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Cited by 137 (14 self)
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The random oracle model is a very convenient setting for designing cryptographic protocols. In this idealized model all parties have access to a common, public random function, called a random oracle. Protocols in this model are often very simple and efficient; also the analysis is often clearer. However, we do not have a general mechanism for transforming protocols that are secure in the random oracle model into protocols that are secure in real life. In fact, we do not even know how to meaningfully specify the properties required from such a mechanism. Instead, it is a common practice to simply replace  often without mathematical justification  the random oracle with a `cryptographic hash function' (e.g., MD5 or SHA). Consequently, the resulting protocols have no meaningful proofs of security. We propose a research program aimed at rectifying this situation by means of identifying, and subsequently realizing, the useful properties of random oracles. As a first step, we introduce a new primitive that realizes a specific aspect of random oracles. This primitive, called oracle hashing, is a hash function that, like random oracles, `hides all partial information on its input'. A salient property of oracle hashing is that it is probabilistic: different applications to the same input result in different hash values. Still, we maintain the ability to verify whether a given hash value was generated from a given input. We describe constructions of oracle hashing, as well as applications where oracle hashing successfully replaces random oracles.