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587
Distance metric learning for large margin nearest neighbor classification
 In NIPS
, 2006
"... We show how to learn a Mahanalobis distance metric for knearest neighbor (kNN) classification by semidefinite programming. The metric is trained with the goal that the knearest neighbors always belong to the same class while examples from different classes are separated by a large margin. On seven ..."
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Cited by 695 (14 self)
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We show how to learn a Mahanalobis distance metric for knearest neighbor (kNN) classification by semidefinite programming. The metric is trained with the goal that the knearest neighbors always belong to the same class while examples from different classes are separated by a large margin. On seven data sets of varying size and difficulty, we find that metrics trained in this way lead to significant improvements in kNN classification—for example, achieving a test error rate of 1.3 % on the MNIST handwritten digits. As in support vector machines (SVMs), the learning problem reduces to a convex optimization based on the hinge loss. Unlike learning in SVMs, however, our framework requires no modification or extension for problems in multiway (as opposed to binary) classification. 1
Survey of clustering algorithms
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL NETWORKS
, 2005
"... Data analysis plays an indispensable role for understanding various phenomena. Cluster analysis, primitive exploration with little or no prior knowledge, consists of research developed across a wide variety of communities. The diversity, on one hand, equips us with many tools. On the other hand, the ..."
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Cited by 501 (4 self)
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Data analysis plays an indispensable role for understanding various phenomena. Cluster analysis, primitive exploration with little or no prior knowledge, consists of research developed across a wide variety of communities. The diversity, on one hand, equips us with many tools. On the other hand, the profusion of options causes confusion. We survey clustering algorithms for data sets appearing in statistics, computer science, and machine learning, and illustrate their applications in some benchmark data sets, the traveling salesman problem, and bioinformatics, a new field attracting intensive efforts. Several tightly related topics, proximity measure, and cluster validation, are also discussed.
Graph embedding and extension: A general framework for dimensionality reduction
 IEEE TRANS. PATTERN ANAL. MACH. INTELL
, 2007
"... Over the past few decades, a large family of algorithms—supervised or unsupervised; stemming from statistics or geometry theory—has been designed to provide different solutions to the problem of dimensionality reduction. Despite the different motivations of these algorithms, we present in this paper ..."
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Cited by 272 (29 self)
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Over the past few decades, a large family of algorithms—supervised or unsupervised; stemming from statistics or geometry theory—has been designed to provide different solutions to the problem of dimensionality reduction. Despite the different motivations of these algorithms, we present in this paper a general formulation known as graph embedding to unify them within a common framework. In graph embedding, each algorithm can be considered as the direct graph embedding or its linear/kernel/tensor extension of a specific intrinsic graph that describes certain desired statistical or geometric properties of a data set, with constraints from scale normalization or a penalty graph that characterizes a statistical or geometric property that should be avoided. Furthermore, the graph embedding framework can be used as a general platform for developing new dimensionality reduction algorithms. By utilizing this framework as a tool, we propose a new supervised dimensionality reduction algorithm called Marginal Fisher Analysis in which the intrinsic graph characterizes the intraclass compactness and connects each data point with its neighboring points of the same class, while the penalty graph connects the marginal points and characterizes the interclass separability. We show that MFA effectively overcomes the limitations of the traditional Linear Discriminant Analysis algorithm due to data distribution assumptions and available projection directions. Real face recognition experiments show the superiority of our proposed MFA in comparison to LDA, also for corresponding kernel and tensor extensions.
An overview of textindependent speaker recognition: from features to supervectors
, 2009
"... This paper gives an overview of automatic speaker recognition technology, with an emphasis on textindependent recognition. Speaker recognition has been studied actively for several decades. We give an overview of both the classical and the stateoftheart methods. We start with the fundamentals of ..."
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Cited by 156 (37 self)
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This paper gives an overview of automatic speaker recognition technology, with an emphasis on textindependent recognition. Speaker recognition has been studied actively for several decades. We give an overview of both the classical and the stateoftheart methods. We start with the fundamentals of automatic speaker recognition, concerning feature extraction and speaker modeling. We elaborate advanced computational techniques to address robustness and session variability. The recent progress from vectors towards supervectors opens up a new area of exploration and represents a technology trend. We also provide an overview of this recent development and discuss the evaluation methodology of speaker recognition systems. We conclude the paper with discussion on future directions.
Local Gabor binary pattern histogram sequence (LGBPHS): A novel nonstatistical model for face representation and recognition
 in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Computer Vision
"... For years, researchers in face recognition area have been representing and recognizing faces based on subspace discriminant analysis or statistical learning. Nevertheless, these approaches are always suffering from the generalizability problem. This paper proposes a novel nonstatistics based face r ..."
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Cited by 150 (11 self)
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For years, researchers in face recognition area have been representing and recognizing faces based on subspace discriminant analysis or statistical learning. Nevertheless, these approaches are always suffering from the generalizability problem. This paper proposes a novel nonstatistics based face representation approach, Local Gabor Binary Pattern Histogram Sequence (LGBPHS), in which training procedure is unnecessary to construct the face model, so that the generalizability problem is naturally avoided. In this approach, a face image is modeled as a “histogram sequence ” by concatenating the histograms of all the local regions of all the local Gabor magnitude binary pattern maps. For recognition, histogram intersection is used to measure the similarity of different LGBPHSes and the nearest neighborhood is exploited for final classification. Additionally, we have further proposed to assign different weights for each histogram piece when measuring two LGBPHSes. Our experimental results on AR and FERET face database show the validity of the proposed approach especially for partially occluded face images, and more impressively, we have achieved the best result on FERET face database. 1.
A Survey of Kernels for Structured Data
, 2003
"... Kernel methods in general and support vector machines in particular have been successful in various learning tasks on data represented in a single table. Much ‘realworld’ data, however, is structured – it has no natural representation in a single table. Usually, to apply kernel methods to ‘realwor ..."
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Cited by 146 (2 self)
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Kernel methods in general and support vector machines in particular have been successful in various learning tasks on data represented in a single table. Much ‘realworld’ data, however, is structured – it has no natural representation in a single table. Usually, to apply kernel methods to ‘realworld’ data, extensive preprocessing is performed to embed the data into a real vector space and thus in a single table. This survey describes several approaches of defining positive definite kernels on structured instances directly.
Face recognition using kernel direct discriminant analysis algorithms
 IEEE Trans. Neural Networks
"... Abstract—Techniques that can introduce lowdimensional feature representation with enhanced discriminatory power is of paramount importance in face recognition (FR) systems. It is well known that the distribution of face images, under a perceivable variation in viewpoint, illumination or facial expr ..."
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Cited by 143 (12 self)
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Abstract—Techniques that can introduce lowdimensional feature representation with enhanced discriminatory power is of paramount importance in face recognition (FR) systems. It is well known that the distribution of face images, under a perceivable variation in viewpoint, illumination or facial expression, is highly nonlinear and complex. It is, therefore, not surprising that linear techniques, such as those based on principle component analysis (PCA) or linear discriminant analysis (LDA), cannot provide reliable and robust solutions to those FR problems with complex face variations. In this paper, we propose a kernel machinebased discriminant analysis method, which deals with the nonlinearity of the face patterns ’ distribution. The proposed method also effectively solves the socalled “small sample size ” (SSS) problem, which exists in most FR tasks. The new algorithm has been tested, in terms of classification error rate performance, on the multiview UMIST face database. Results indicate that the proposed methodology is able to achieve excellent performance with only a very small set of features being used, and its error rate is approximately 34 % and 48 % of those of two other commonly used kernel FR approaches, the kernelPCA (KPCA) and the generalized discriminant analysis (GDA), respectively. Index Terms—Face recognition (FR), kernel direct discriminant analysis (KDDA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), principle component analysis (PCA), small sample size problem (SSS), kernel methods. I.
KPCA plus LDA: a complete kernel Fisher discriminant framework for feature extraction and recognition
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 2005
"... This paper examines the theory of kernel Fisher discriminant analysis (KFD) in a Hilbert space and develops a twophase KFD framework, i.e., kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) plus Fisher linear discriminant analysis (LDA). This framework provides novel insights into the nature of KFD. Base ..."
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Cited by 141 (7 self)
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This paper examines the theory of kernel Fisher discriminant analysis (KFD) in a Hilbert space and develops a twophase KFD framework, i.e., kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) plus Fisher linear discriminant analysis (LDA). This framework provides novel insights into the nature of KFD. Based on this framework, the authors propose a complete kernel Fisher discriminant analysis (CKFD) algorithm. CKFD can be used to carry out discriminant analysis in “double discriminant subspaces.” The fact that, it can make full use of two kinds of discriminant information, regular and irregular, makes CKFD a more powerful discriminator. The proposed algorithm was tested and evaluated using the FERET face database and the CENPARMI handwritten numeral database. The experimental results show that CKFD outperforms other KFD algorithms.
An introduction to boosting and leveraging
 Advanced Lectures on Machine Learning, LNCS
, 2003
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