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Routing in Outer Space: Fair Traffic Load in MultiHop Wireless Networks
, 2008
"... In this paper we consider securityrelated and energyefficiency issues in multihop wireless networks. We start our work from the observation, known in the literature, that shortest path routing creates congested areas in multihop wireless networks. These areas are critical—they generate both secu ..."
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In this paper we consider securityrelated and energyefficiency issues in multihop wireless networks. We start our work from the observation, known in the literature, that shortest path routing creates congested areas in multihop wireless networks. These areas are critical—they generate both security and energy efficiency issues. We attack these problems and set out routing in outer space, a new routing mechanism that transforms any shortest path routing protocol (or approximated versions of it) into a new protocol that does not create congested areas, does not have the associated securityrelated issues, and does not encourage selfish positioning. Moreover, the network lives longer of the same network using the original routing protocol (in spite of using more energy globally), and dies more gracefully.
Circular Sailing Routing for Wireless Networks
"... Abstract—Routing in wireless networks has been heavily studied in the last decade and numerous routing protocols were proposed in literature. The packets usually follow the shortest paths between sources and destinations in routing protocols to achieve smallest traveled distance. However, this leads ..."
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Cited by 8 (3 self)
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Abstract—Routing in wireless networks has been heavily studied in the last decade and numerous routing protocols were proposed in literature. The packets usually follow the shortest paths between sources and destinations in routing protocols to achieve smallest traveled distance. However, this leads to the uneven distribution of traffic load in a network. For example, wireless nodes in the center of the network will have heavier traffic since most of the shortest routes go through them. In this paper, we first describe a novel routing method, called Circular Sailing Routing (CSR), which can distribute the traffic more evenly in the network. The proposed method first maps the network onto a sphere via a simple stereographic projection, and then the route decision is made by the distance on the sphere instead of the Euclidean distance in the plane. We theoretically prove that for a network the distance traveled by the packets using CSR is no more than a small constant factor of the minimum (the distance of the shortest path). We then extend CSR to a localized version, Localized CSR, by modifying the greedy routing without any additional communication overhead. Finally, we further propose CSR protocols for 3D networks where nodes are distributed in a 3D space instead of a 2D plane. For all proposed methods, we conduct simulations to study their performances and compare them with global shortest path routing or greedy routing. I.
Load balancing routing in three dimensional wireless networks
 in Proc. IEEE ICC
"... Abstract — Although most existing wireless systems and protocols are based on twodimensional design, in reality, a variety of networks operate in threedimensions. The design of protocols for 3D networks is surprisingly more difficult than the design of those for 2D networks. In this paper, we inv ..."
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Abstract — Although most existing wireless systems and protocols are based on twodimensional design, in reality, a variety of networks operate in threedimensions. The design of protocols for 3D networks is surprisingly more difficult than the design of those for 2D networks. In this paper, we investigate how to design load balancing routing for 3D networks. Most current wireless routing protocols are based on Shortest Path Routing (SPR), where packets are delivered along the shortest route from a source to a destination. However, under uniform communication, shortest path routing suffers from uneven load distribution in the network, such as crowed center effect where the center nodes have more load than the nodes in the periphery. Aim to balance the load, we propose a novel 3D routing method, called 3D Circular Sailing Routing (CSR), which maps the 3D network onto a sphere and routes the packets based on the spherical distance on the sphere. We describe two mapping methods for CSR and then provide theoretical proofs of their competitiveness compared to SPR. For both proposed methods, we conduct simulations to study their performance in grid and random networks. I.
Forwarding Capacity of an Infinite Wireless Network
"... We study the maximal forwarding capacity of a massively dense wireless multihop network where a typical path consists of a vast number of hops. In such a network, the macroscopic level, corresponding to the scale of an endtoend path, and the microscopic level, corresponding to the scale of a singl ..."
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We study the maximal forwarding capacity of a massively dense wireless multihop network where a typical path consists of a vast number of hops. In such a network, the macroscopic level, corresponding to the scale of an endtoend path, and the microscopic level, corresponding to the scale of a single hop, can be separated. At the macroscopic level the task is that of routing, while at the microscopic level the packets are forwarded based on the information received from the macroscopic level. We give a formulation for the forwarding problem and devise simulation algorithms based on an augmentation of the maxflow mincut theorem for obtaining upper bounds for the maximal forwarding capacity. We compare the upper bounds with feasible forwarding methods and find out that the tightest bound is about three times the highest achieved performance.
Maximum Weight Independent Sets in an Infinite Plane with Uni and Bidirectional Interference Models
"... We study the maximum weight independent sets of links between nodes distributed randomly in an infinite plane. Different definitions of the weight of a link are considered, leading to slight variations of what is essentially a spatial reuse problem in wireless multihop networks. A simple interfere ..."
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We study the maximum weight independent sets of links between nodes distributed randomly in an infinite plane. Different definitions of the weight of a link are considered, leading to slight variations of what is essentially a spatial reuse problem in wireless multihop networks. A simple interference model is assumed with the interference radius equaling the transmission radius. In addition to unidirectional interference from a transmitter to the receivers of other links, also an RTS/CTStype bidirectional handshake is considered. We study both the case where the transmission radius is fixed and tunable through power control. With a fixed transmission radius, we derive asymptotic results for the low and high density regimes. The main contribution is in the numerical results for the maximum weight, establishing some previously unknown parameters of stochastic geometry. The results are obtained by the Moving Window Algorithm that is able to find the maximum weight independent set in a strip of limited height but unlimited length. By studying the results as a function of the height of the strip, we are able to extrapolate to the infinite plane.
NearOptimal Load Balancing in Dense Wireless MultiHop Networks
 NGI 2008, 4TH CONFERENCE ON NEXT GENERATION INTERNET NETWORKS
, 2008
"... Abstract—We consider the load balancing problem in wireless multihop networks. In the limit of a dense network, there is a strong separation between the macroscopic and microscopic scales, and the load balancing problem can be formulated as finding continuous curves (“routes”) between all sourcede ..."
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Abstract—We consider the load balancing problem in wireless multihop networks. In the limit of a dense network, there is a strong separation between the macroscopic and microscopic scales, and the load balancing problem can be formulated as finding continuous curves (“routes”) between all sourcedestination pairs that minimize the maximum of the socalled scalar packet flux (“traffic load”). In this paper we reformulate the problem by focusing entirely on the socalled dflows (vector flow field of packets with a common destination x) and by looking at the equation these flows have to satisfy. The general solution to this equation can be written in terms of a single unknown scalar function, ψ(r,x), related to the circulation density of the dflow, for which function the optimization task can be presented as a problem of variational calculus. In this approach, we avoid completely dealing with systems of paths and calculating the load distribution resulting from the use of a given set of paths. Once the optimal solution for ψ(r,x) is found the corresponding paths are obtained as the flow lines of the dflows. In the example of a unit disk with uniform traffic demands we are able to find a set of paths which is considerably better than any previously published results, yielding a low maximal scalar flux and an extraordinarily flat load distribution. We further illustrate the methodology for a unit square with comparable improvements achieved. I.
Approximating Maximum Directed Flow in a Large Wireless Network
"... Abstract—We study the maximum forwarding capacity for the relay traffic that can be transmitted through a wireless multihop network in a single direction. The problem appears as the microscopic level problem in a dense multihop network where the routing and forwarding tasks can be considered indepen ..."
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Abstract—We study the maximum forwarding capacity for the relay traffic that can be transmitted through a wireless multihop network in a single direction. The problem appears as the microscopic level problem in a dense multihop network where the routing and forwarding tasks can be considered independently (separation of scales). Ultimately, the problem of finding the maximum forwarding capacity involves solving a maxflow problem in an infinite plane with an infinite dimensional scheduling vector as an additional parameter to be optimized. In this paper, we approximate the infinite network by a finite but large network consisting of nodes distributed as a spatial Poisson process, and give the problem an LP formulation assuming a Boolean interference model. The computational complexity is further reduced by relaxing the necessary and sufficient constraints and solving the LP problem with a reduced set of necessary clique constraints. This gives a new significantly tighter upper bound on the achievable forwarding capacity compared with our previous (nonachievable) upper bound corresponding to the maximum capacity in one time slot. I.
Traffic analysis & modeling in wireless sensor networks and their applications on network optimization and anomaly detection
 Netw. Protoc. Algorithms 2010
"... Wireless sensor network (WSN) has emerged as a promising technology thanks to the recent advances in electronics, networking, and information technologies. However, there is still a great deal of additional research required before it finally becomes a mature technology. This article concentrates on ..."
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Wireless sensor network (WSN) has emerged as a promising technology thanks to the recent advances in electronics, networking, and information technologies. However, there is still a great deal of additional research required before it finally becomes a mature technology. This article concentrates on three factors which are holding back the development of WSNs. Firstly, there is a lack of traffic analysis & modeling for WSNs. Secondly, network optimization for WSNs needs more investigation. Thirdly, the development of anomaly detection techniques for WSNs remains a seldom touched area. Among these three factors, the understanding regarding the traffic dynamics within WSNs provide a basis for further works on network optimization and anomaly detection for WSNs.
On the Optimality of FieldLine Routing in Massively Dense Wireless MultiHop Networks
"... NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Performance Evaluation. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Cha ..."
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NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Performance Evaluation. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Performance Evaluation, vol. 66,
Stretch Factor of Curveball Routing in Wireless Network: Cost of Load Balancing
"... Abstract—Routing in wireless networks has been heavily studied in the last decade and numerous routing protocols were proposed in literature. Most of the existing routing protocols are based on shortest path routing. Shortest path routing enjoys minimizing the total delay, but may lead uneven distri ..."
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Abstract—Routing in wireless networks has been heavily studied in the last decade and numerous routing protocols were proposed in literature. Most of the existing routing protocols are based on shortest path routing. Shortest path routing enjoys minimizing the total delay, but may lead uneven distribution of traffic load in a network. For example, wireless nodes in the center of a network usually have heavier traffic load since most of the shortest routes go through the center. To solve this problem, Popa et al. [1] recently proposed a novel routing method, called curveball routing (CBR), which can balance the traffic load and vanish the crowded center effect. In CBR, nodes are mapped on a sphere and packets are routed on those virtual coordinates on the sphere. While CBR achieves better load balancing for the network, it also uses longer routes than the shortest paths. This can be treated as the cost of load balancing. In this paper, we focus on studying this cost of load balancing for curveball routing. Specifically, we theoretically prove that for any network, the distance traveled by the packets using CBR is no more than a small constant factor of the minimum (the distance of the shortest path). The constant factor, we called stretch factor, is only depended on the ratio between the size of the network and the radius of the sphere used in CBR. We then conduct extensive simulations to evaluate the stretch factor and load distribution of CBR and compare them with the shortest path routing in both grid and random networks. We also study the tradeoff between stretch factor and load balancing. I.