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169
Spatial/spectral endmember extraction by multidimensional morphological operations
 IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
"... Abstract—Spectral mixture analysis provides an efficient mechanism for the interpretation and classification of remotely sensed multidimensional imagery. It aims to identify a set of reference signatures (also known as endmembers) that can be used to model the reflectance spectrum at each pixel of t ..."
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Cited by 103 (48 self)
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Abstract—Spectral mixture analysis provides an efficient mechanism for the interpretation and classification of remotely sensed multidimensional imagery. It aims to identify a set of reference signatures (also known as endmembers) that can be used to model the reflectance spectrum at each pixel of the original image. Thus, the modeling is carried out as a linear combination of a finite number of ground components. Although spectral mixture models have proved to be appropriate for the purpose of large hyperspectral dataset subpixel analysis, few methods are available in the literature for the extraction of appropriate endmembers in spectral unmixing. Most approaches have been designed from a spectroscopic viewpoint and, thus, tend to neglect the existing spatial correlation between pixels. This paper presents a new automated method that performs unsupervised pixel purity determination and endmember extraction from multidimensional datasets; this is achieved by using both spatial and spectral information in a combined manner. The method is based on mathematical morphology, a classic image processing technique that can be applied to the spectral domain while being able to keep its spatial characteristics. The proposed methodology is evaluated through a specifically designed framework that uses both simulated and real hyperspectral data. Index Terms—Automated endmember extraction, mathematical morphology, morphological eccentricity index, multidimensional analysis, spatial/spectral integration, spectral mixture model. I.
Joint Bayesian Endmember Extraction and Linear Unmixing for Hyperspectral Imagery
"... Abstract—This paper studies a fully Bayesian algorithm for endmember extraction and abundance estimation for hyperspectral imagery. Each pixel of the hyperspectral image is decomposed as a linear combination of pure endmember spectra following the linear mixing model. The estimation of the unknown e ..."
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Cited by 67 (29 self)
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Abstract—This paper studies a fully Bayesian algorithm for endmember extraction and abundance estimation for hyperspectral imagery. Each pixel of the hyperspectral image is decomposed as a linear combination of pure endmember spectra following the linear mixing model. The estimation of the unknown endmember spectra is conducted in a unified manner by generating the posterior distribution of abundances and endmember parameters under a hierarchical Bayesian model. This model assumes conjugate prior distributions for these parameters, accounts for nonnegativity and fulladditivity constraints, and exploits the fact that the endmember proportions lie on a lower dimensional simplex. A Gibbs sampler is proposed to overcome the complexity of evaluating the resulting posterior distribution. This sampler generates samples distributed according to the posterior distribution and estimates the unknown parameters using these generated samples. The accuracy of the joint Bayesian estimator is illustrated by simulations conducted on synthetic and real AVIRIS images. Index Terms—Bayesian inference, endmember extraction, hyperspectral imagery, linear spectral unmixing, MCMC methods. I.
Sparse unmixing of hyperspectral data
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING
, 2011
"... Linear spectral unmixing is a popular tool in remotely sensed hyperspectral data interpretation. It aims at estimating the fractional abundances of pure spectral signatures (also called as endmembers) in each mixed pixel collected by an imaging spectrometer. In many situations, the identification o ..."
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Cited by 51 (15 self)
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Linear spectral unmixing is a popular tool in remotely sensed hyperspectral data interpretation. It aims at estimating the fractional abundances of pure spectral signatures (also called as endmembers) in each mixed pixel collected by an imaging spectrometer. In many situations, the identification of the endmember signatures in the original data set may be challenging due to insufficient spatial resolution, mixtures happening at different scales, and unavailability of completely pure spectral signatures in the scene. However, the unmixing problem can also be approached in semisupervised fashion, i.e., by assuming that the observed image signatures can be expressed in the form of linear combinations of a number of pure spectral signatures known in advance (e.g., spectra collected on the ground by a field spectroradiometer). Unmixing then amounts to finding the optimal subset of signatures in a (potentially very large) spectral library that can best model
Semisupervised linear spectral unmixing using a hierarchical Bayesian model for hyperspectral imagery
, 2008
"... This paper proposes a hierarchical Bayesian model that can be used for semisupervised hyperspectral image unmixing. The model assumes that the pixel reflectances result from linear combinations of pure component spectra contaminated by an additive Gaussian noise. The abundance parameters appearing ..."
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Cited by 50 (25 self)
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This paper proposes a hierarchical Bayesian model that can be used for semisupervised hyperspectral image unmixing. The model assumes that the pixel reflectances result from linear combinations of pure component spectra contaminated by an additive Gaussian noise. The abundance parameters appearing in this model satisfy positivity and additivity constraints. These constraints are naturally expressed in a Bayesian context by using appropriate abundance prior distributions. The posterior distributions of the unknown model parameters are then derived. A Gibbs sampler allows one to draw samples distributed according to the posteriors of interest and to estimate the unknown abundances. An extension of the algorithm is finally studied for mixtures with unknown numbers of spectral components belonging to a know library. The performance of the different unmixing strategies is evaluated via simulations conducted on synthetic and real data.
Nonlinear unmixing of hyperspectral images using a generalized bilinear model
 IEEE Trans. Geosci. and Remote Sensing
"... Nonlinear models have recently shown interesting properties for spectral unmixing. This paper considers a generalized bilinear model recently introduced for unmixing hyperspectral images. Different algorithms are studied to estimate the parameters of this bilinear model. The positivity and sumtoon ..."
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Cited by 41 (21 self)
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Nonlinear models have recently shown interesting properties for spectral unmixing. This paper considers a generalized bilinear model recently introduced for unmixing hyperspectral images. Different algorithms are studied to estimate the parameters of this bilinear model. The positivity and sumtoone constraints for the abundances are ensured by the proposed algorithms. The performance of the resulting unmixing strategy is evaluated via simulations conducted on synthetic and real data. Index Terms — hyperspectral imagery, spectral unmixing, bilinear model, Bayesian inference, MCMC methods, gradient descent algorithm, least square algorithm. 1.
Regionbased spatial preprocessing for endmember extraction and spectral unmixing
 IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett
, 2011
"... In this paper, we develop a new spatial preprocessing strategy which can be applied prior to a spectralbased endmember extraction process for unmixing of hyperspectral data. Our proposed approach directs the endmember searching process to regions which are both spectrally pure and spatially homoge ..."
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Cited by 35 (11 self)
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In this paper, we develop a new spatial preprocessing strategy which can be applied prior to a spectralbased endmember extraction process for unmixing of hyperspectral data. Our proposed approach directs the endmember searching process to regions which are both spectrally pure and spatially homogeneous in the scene. Our experimental results, conducted using simulated hyperspectral data sets with known endmembers and fractional abundances, reveal that the proposed approach can successfully integrate the spatial and spectral information in the search for more relevant endmembers. Index Terms — Spectral unmixing, endmember extraction, spatialspectral integration.
A Convex AnalysisBased MinimumVolume Enclosing Simplex Algorithm for Hyperspectral Unmixing
, 2009
"... Hyperspectral unmixing aims at identifying the hidden spectral signatures (or endmembers) and their corresponding proportions (or abundances) from an observed hyperspectral scene. Many existing hyperspectral unmixing algorithms were developed under a commonly used assumption that pure pixels exis ..."
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Cited by 31 (1 self)
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Hyperspectral unmixing aims at identifying the hidden spectral signatures (or endmembers) and their corresponding proportions (or abundances) from an observed hyperspectral scene. Many existing hyperspectral unmixing algorithms were developed under a commonly used assumption that pure pixels exist. However, the purepixel assumption may be seriously violated for highly mixed data. Based on intuitive grounds, Craig reported an unmixing criterion without requiring the purepixel assumption, which estimates the endmembers by vertices of a minimumvolume simplex enclosing all the observed pixels. In this paper, we incorporate convex analysis and Craig’s criterion to develop a minimumvolume enclosing simplex (MVES) formulation for hyperspectral unmixing. A cyclic minimization algorithm for approximating the MVES problem is developed using linear programs (LPs), which can be practically implemented by readily available LP solvers. We also provide a nonheuristic guarantee of our MVES problem formulation, where the existence of pure pixels is proved to be a sufficient condition for MVES to perfectly identify the true endmembers. Some Monte Carlo simulations and real data experiments are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed MVES algorithm over several existing hyperspectral unmixing methods.
Supervised nonlinear spectral unmixing using a postnonlinear mixing model for hyperspectral imagery
, 2012
"... This paper presents a nonlinear mixing model for hyperspectral image unmixing. The proposed model assumes that the pixel reflectances are nonlinear functions of pure spectral components contaminated by an additive white Gaussian noise. These nonlinear functions are approximated using polynomial func ..."
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Cited by 24 (13 self)
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This paper presents a nonlinear mixing model for hyperspectral image unmixing. The proposed model assumes that the pixel reflectances are nonlinear functions of pure spectral components contaminated by an additive white Gaussian noise. These nonlinear functions are approximated using polynomial functions leading to a polynomial postnonlinear mixing model. A Bayesian algorithm and optimization methods are proposed to estimate the parameters involved in the model.The performance of the unmixing strategies is evaluated by simulations conducted on synthetic and real data.
Enhancing hyperspectral image unmixing with spatial correlations
, 2011
"... This paper describes a new algorithm for hyperspectral image unmixing. Most unmixing algorithms proposed in the literature do not take into account the possible spatial correlations between the pixels. In this paper, a Bayesian model is introduced to exploit these correlations. The image to be unmi ..."
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Cited by 23 (13 self)
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This paper describes a new algorithm for hyperspectral image unmixing. Most unmixing algorithms proposed in the literature do not take into account the possible spatial correlations between the pixels. In this paper, a Bayesian model is introduced to exploit these correlations. The image to be unmixed is assumed to be partitioned into regions (or classes) where the statistical properties of the abundance coefficients are homogeneous. A Markov random field, is then proposed to model the spatial dependencies between the pixels within any class. Conditionally upon a given class, each pixel is modeled by using the classical linear mixing model with additive white Gaussian noise. For this model, the posterior distributions of the unknown parameters and hyperparameters allow the parameters of interest to be inferred. These parameters include the abundances for each pixel, the means and variances of the abundances for each class, as well as a classification map indicating the classes of all pixels in the image. To overcome the complexity of the posterior distribution, we consider a Markov chain Monte Carlo method that generates samples asymptotically distributed according to the posterior. The generated samples are then used for parameter and hyperparameter estimation. The accuracy of the proposed algorithms is illustrated on synthetic and real data.
A simplex volume maximization framework for hyperspectral endmember extraction
 IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens
, 2011
"... Abstract—In the late 1990s, Winter proposed an endmember extraction belief that has much impact on endmember extraction techniques in hyperspectral remote sensing. The idea is to find a maximumvolume simplex whose vertices are drawn from the pixel vectors. Winter’s belief has stimulated much intere ..."
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Cited by 22 (10 self)
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Abstract—In the late 1990s, Winter proposed an endmember extraction belief that has much impact on endmember extraction techniques in hyperspectral remote sensing. The idea is to find a maximumvolume simplex whose vertices are drawn from the pixel vectors. Winter’s belief has stimulated much interest, resulting in many different variations of pixel search algorithms, widely known as NFINDR, being proposed. In this paper, we take a continuous optimization perspective to revisit Winter’s belief, where the aim is to provide an alternative framework of formulating and understanding Winter’s belief in a systematic manner. We first prove that, fundamentally, the existence of pure pixels is not only sufficient for the Winter problem to perfectly identify the groundtruth endmembers but also necessary. Then, under the umbrella of the Winter problem, we derive two methods using two different optimization strategies. One is by alternating optimization. The resulting algorithm turns out to be an NFINDR variant, but, with the proposed formulation, we can pin down some of its convergence characteristics. Another is by successive optimization; interestingly, the resulting algorithm is found to exhibit some similarity to vertex component analysis. Hence, the framework provides linkage and alternative interpretations to these existing algorithms. Furthermore, we propose a robust worst case generalization of the Winter problem for accounting for perturbed pixel effects in the noisy scenario. An algorithm combining alternating optimization and projected subgradients is devised to deal with the problem. We use both simulations and real data experiments to demonstrate the viability and merits of the proposed algorithms. Index Terms—Alternating optimization, endmember extraction, hyperspectral imaging, projected subgradient method, robust optimization, simplex volume maximization, successive optimization. I.