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197
Learning with local and global consistency
 Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 16
, 2004
"... We consider the general problem of learning from labeled and unlabeled data, which is often called semisupervised learning or transductive inference. A principled approach to semisupervised learning is to design a classifying function which is sufficiently smooth with respect to the intrinsic stru ..."
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Cited by 666 (21 self)
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We consider the general problem of learning from labeled and unlabeled data, which is often called semisupervised learning or transductive inference. A principled approach to semisupervised learning is to design a classifying function which is sufficiently smooth with respect to the intrinsic structure collectively revealed by known labeled and unlabeled points. We present a simple algorithm to obtain such a smooth solution. Our method yields encouraging experimental results on a number of classification problems and demonstrates effective use of unlabeled data. 1
Manifold regularization: A geometric framework for learning from labeled and unlabeled examples
 JOURNAL OF MACHINE LEARNING RESEARCH
, 2006
"... We propose a family of learning algorithms based on a new form of regularization that allows us to exploit the geometry of the marginal distribution. We focus on a semisupervised framework that incorporates labeled and unlabeled data in a generalpurpose learner. Some transductive graph learning al ..."
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Cited by 560 (15 self)
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We propose a family of learning algorithms based on a new form of regularization that allows us to exploit the geometry of the marginal distribution. We focus on a semisupervised framework that incorporates labeled and unlabeled data in a generalpurpose learner. Some transductive graph learning algorithms and standard methods including Support Vector Machines and Regularized Least Squares can be obtained as special cases. We utilize properties of Reproducing Kernel Hilbert spaces to prove new Representer theorems that provide theoretical basis for the algorithms. As a result (in contrast to purely graphbased approaches) we obtain a natural outofsample extension to novel examples and so are able to handle both transductive and truly semisupervised settings. We present experimental evidence suggesting that our semisupervised algorithms are able to use unlabeled data effectively. Finally we have a brief discussion of unsupervised and fully supervised learning within our general framework.
Cluster kernels for semisupervised learning
 Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems
, 2002
"... We propose a framework to incorporate unlabeled data in kernel classifier, based on the idea that two points in the same cluster are more likely to have the same label. This is achieved by modifying the eigenspectrum of the kernel matrix. Experimental results assess the validity of this approach. 1 ..."
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Cited by 193 (10 self)
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We propose a framework to incorporate unlabeled data in kernel classifier, based on the idea that two points in the same cluster are more likely to have the same label. This is achieved by modifying the eigenspectrum of the kernel matrix. Experimental results assess the validity of this approach. 1
Learning from Labeled and Unlabeled Data with Label Propagation
, 2002
"... We investigate the use of unlabeled data to help labeled data in classification. We propose a simple iterative algorithm, label propagation, to propagate labels through the dataset along high density areas defined by unlabeled data. We give the analysis of the algorithm, show its solution, and its c ..."
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Cited by 192 (0 self)
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We investigate the use of unlabeled data to help labeled data in classification. We propose a simple iterative algorithm, label propagation, to propagate labels through the dataset along high density areas defined by unlabeled data. We give the analysis of the algorithm, show its solution, and its connection to several other algorithms. We also show how to learn parameters by minimum spanning tree heuristic and entropy minimization, and the algorithm's ability to do feature selection. Experiment results are promising.
Semisupervised Learning by Entropy Minimization
"... We consider the semisupervised learning problem, where a decision rule is to be learned from labeled and unlabeled data. In this framework, we motivate minimum entropy regularization, which enables to incorporate unlabeled data in the standard supervised learning. This regularizer can be applied to ..."
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Cited by 101 (2 self)
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We consider the semisupervised learning problem, where a decision rule is to be learned from labeled and unlabeled data. In this framework, we motivate minimum entropy regularization, which enables to incorporate unlabeled data in the standard supervised learning. This regularizer can be applied to any model of posterior probabilities. Our approach provides a new motivation for some existing semisupervised learning algorithms which are particular or limiting instances of minimum entropy regularization. A series of experiments illustrates that the proposed solution benefits from unlabeled data. The method challenges mixture models when the data are sampled from the distribution class spanned by the generative model. The performances are definitely in favor of minimum entropy regularization when generative models are misspecified, and the weighting of unlabeled data provides robustness to the violation of the “cluster assumption”. Finally, we also illustrate that the method can be far superior to manifold learning in high dimension spaces, and also when the manifolds are generated by moving examples along the discriminating directions.
On Manifold Regularization
, 2005
"... We propose a family of learning algorithms based on a new form of regularization that allows us to exploit the geometry of the marginal distribution. We focus on a semisupervised framework that incorporates labeled and unlabeled data in a generalpurpose learner. Some transductive graph learni ..."
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Cited by 96 (0 self)
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We propose a family of learning algorithms based on a new form of regularization that allows us to exploit the geometry of the marginal distribution. We focus on a semisupervised framework that incorporates labeled and unlabeled data in a generalpurpose learner. Some transductive graph learning algorithms and standard methods including Support Vector Machines and Regularized Least Squares can be obtained as special cases. We utilize properties of Reproducing Kernel Hilbert spaces to prove new Representer theorems that provide theoretical basis for the algorithms. As a result (in contrast to purely graph based approaches) we obtain a natural outofsample extension to novel examples and are thus able to handle both transductive and truly semisupervised settings. We present experimental evidence suggesting that our semisupervised algorithms are able to use unlabeled data effectively. In the absence of labeled examples, our framework gives rise to a regularized form of spectral clustering with an outofsample extension.
Semisupervised protein classification using cluster kernels
 Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 16
, 2004
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Transfer Learning for Image Classification with Sparse Prototype Representations
"... To learn a new visual category from few examples, prior knowledge from unlabeled data as well as previous related categories may be useful. We develop a new method for transfer learning which exploits available unlabeled data and an arbitrary kernel function; we form a representation based on kernel ..."
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Cited by 69 (10 self)
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To learn a new visual category from few examples, prior knowledge from unlabeled data as well as previous related categories may be useful. We develop a new method for transfer learning which exploits available unlabeled data and an arbitrary kernel function; we form a representation based on kernel distances to a large set of unlabeled data points. To transfer knowledge from previous related problems we observe that a category might be learnable using only a small subset of reference prototypes. Related problems may share a significant number of relevant prototypes; we find such a concise representation by performing a joint loss minimization over the training sets of related problems with a shared regularization penalty that minimizes the total number of prototypes involved in the approximation. This optimization problem can be formulated as a linear program that can be solved efficiently. We conduct experiments on a newstopic prediction task where the goal is to predict whether an image belongs to a particular news topic. Our results show that when only few examples are available for training a target topic, leveraging knowledge learnt from other topics can significantly improve performance.
Semisupervised Multilabel Learning by Constrained Nonnegative Matrix Factorization
, 2006
"... We present a novel framework for multilabel learning that explicitly addresses the challenge arising from the large number of classes and a small size of training data. The key assumption behind this work is that two examples tend to have large overlap in their assigned class memberships if they sh ..."
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Cited by 55 (1 self)
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We present a novel framework for multilabel learning that explicitly addresses the challenge arising from the large number of classes and a small size of training data. The key assumption behind this work is that two examples tend to have large overlap in their assigned class memberships if they share high similarity in their input patterns. We capitalize this assumption by first computing two sets of similarities, one based on the input patterns of examples, and the other based on the class memberships of the examples. We then search for the optimal assignment of class memberships to the unlabeled data that minimizes the difference between these two sets of similarities. The optimization problem is formulated as a constrained Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) problem, and an algorithm is presented to efficiently find the solution. Compared to the existing approaches for multilabel learning, the proposed approach is advantageous in that it is able to explore both the unlabeled data and the correlation among different classes simultaneously. Experiments with text categorization show that our approach performs significantly better than several stateoftheart classification techniques when the number of classes is large and the size of training data is small.
Learning visual representations using images with captions
 In Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR2007
"... Current methods for learning visual categories work well when a large amount of labeled data is available, but can run into severe difficulties when the number of labeled examples is small. When labeled data is scarce it may be beneficial to use unlabeled data to learn an image representation that i ..."
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Cited by 54 (3 self)
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Current methods for learning visual categories work well when a large amount of labeled data is available, but can run into severe difficulties when the number of labeled examples is small. When labeled data is scarce it may be beneficial to use unlabeled data to learn an image representation that is lowdimensional, but nevertheless captures the information required to discriminate between image categories. This paper describes a method for learning representations from large quantities of unlabeled images which have associated captions; the goal is to improve learning in future image classification problems. Experiments show that our method significantly outperforms (1) a fullysupervised baseline model, (2) a model that ignores the captions and learns a visual representation by performing PCA on the unlabeled images alone and (3) a model that uses the output of word classifiers trained using captions and unlabeled data. Our current work concentrates on captions as the source of metadata, but more generally other types of metadata could be used. 1.