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193
OBBTree: A hierarchical structure for rapid interference detection
 PROC. ACM SIGGRAPH, 171–180
, 1996
"... We present a data structure and an algorithm for efficient and exact interference detection amongst complex models undergoing rigid motion. The algorithm is applicable to all general polygonal and curved models. It precomputes a hierarchical representation of models using tightfitting oriented bo ..."
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Cited by 843 (50 self)
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We present a data structure and an algorithm for efficient and exact interference detection amongst complex models undergoing rigid motion. The algorithm is applicable to all general polygonal and curved models. It precomputes a hierarchical representation of models using tightfitting oriented bounding box trees. At runtime, the algorithm traverses the tree and tests for overlaps between oriented bounding boxes based on a new separating axis theorem, which takes less than 200 operations in practice. It has been implemented and we compare its performance with other hierarchical data structures. In particular, it can accurately detect all the contacts between large complex geometries composed of hundreds of thousands of polygons at interactive rates, almost one order of magnitude faster than earlier methods.
Efficient collision detection using bounding volume hierarchies of kdops
 IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
, 1998
"... Abstract—Collision detection is of paramount importance for many applications in computer graphics and visualization. Typically, the input to a collision detection algorithm is a large number of geometric objects comprising an environment, together with a set of objects moving within the environment ..."
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Cited by 289 (4 self)
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Abstract—Collision detection is of paramount importance for many applications in computer graphics and visualization. Typically, the input to a collision detection algorithm is a large number of geometric objects comprising an environment, together with a set of objects moving within the environment. In addition to determining accurately the contacts that occur between pairs of objects, one needs also to do so at realtime rates. Applications such as haptic forcefeedback can require over 1,000 collision queries per second. In this paper, we develop and analyze a method, based on boundingvolume hierarchies, for efficient collision detection for objects moving within highly complex environments. Our choice of bounding volume is to use a “discrete orientation polytope” (“kdop”), a convex polytope whose facets are determined by halfspaces whose outward normals come from a small fixed set of k orientations. We compare a variety of methods for constructing hierarchies (“BVtrees”) of bounding kdops. Further, we propose algorithms for maintaining an effective BVtree of kdops for moving objects, as they rotate, and for performing fast collision detection using BVtrees of the moving objects and of the environment. Our algorithms have been implemented and tested. We provide experimental evidence showing that our approach yields substantially faster collision detection than previous methods. Index Terms—Collision detection, intersection searching, bounding volume hierarchies, discrete orientation polytopes, bounding boxes, virtual reality, virtual environments. 1
Collision detection and response for computer animation
 In Proc. of Intl. Conf. on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques
, 1988
"... When several objects are moved about by computer animarion, there is the chance that they will interpenetrate. This is often an undesired state, particularly if the animation is seeking to model a realistic world. Two issues are involved: detecting that a collision has occurred, and responding to it ..."
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Cited by 282 (2 self)
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When several objects are moved about by computer animarion, there is the chance that they will interpenetrate. This is often an undesired state, particularly if the animation is seeking to model a realistic world. Two issues are involved: detecting that a collision has occurred, and responding to it. The former is fundamentally a kinematic problem, involving the positional relationship of objects in the world. The latter is a dynamic problem, in that it involves predicting behavior according to physical laws. This paper discusses collision detection and response in general, presents two collision detection algorithms, describes modeling collisions of arbitrary bodies using springs, and presents an analytical collision response algorithm for articulated rigid bodies that conserves linear and angular momentum.
Approximating Polyhedra with Spheres for TimeCritical Collision Detection
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 1996
"... This paper presents a method for approximating polyhedral objects to support a timecritical collisiondetection algorithm. The approximations are hierarchies of spheres, and they allow the timecritical algorithm to progressively refine the accuracy of its detection, stopping as needed to maintain ..."
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Cited by 212 (1 self)
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This paper presents a method for approximating polyhedral objects to support a timecritical collisiondetection algorithm. The approximations are hierarchies of spheres, and they allow the timecritical algorithm to progressively refine the accuracy of its detection, stopping as needed to maintain the realtime performance essential for interactive applications. The key to this approach is a preprocess that automatically builds tightly fitting hierarchies for rigid and articulated objects. The preprocess uses medialaxis surfaces, which are skeletal representations of objects. These skeletons guide an optimization technique that gives the hierarchies accuracy properties appropriate for collision detection. In a sample application, hierarchies built this way allow the timecritical collisiondetection algorithm to have acceptable accuracy, improving significantly on that possible with hierarchies built by previous techniques. The performance of the timecritical algorithm in this appli...
Collision Detection for Interactive Graphics Applications
 IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
, 1995
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A survey of shadow algorithms
 IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
, 1990
"... Essential to realistic and visually appealing images, shadows are difficult ta compute in most display environments. This survey characterizes the various types of shadows. It also describes most existing shadow algorithms and discusses their complexities, advantages, and shommings. We examine herd ..."
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Cited by 150 (3 self)
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Essential to realistic and visually appealing images, shadows are difficult ta compute in most display environments. This survey characterizes the various types of shadows. It also describes most existing shadow algorithms and discusses their complexities, advantages, and shommings. We examine herd shadows, soft shadbws, shadows of transparent objects, and shadows for complex modeling primitives. For each type, we examine shadow algorithms within various rendswing techniques. This survey attempts to provide readem with enough background and insight on the various rmthods to dow them to choose the algorithm best wpuited to their W. We also hope that our analysis will h&p identify the a m that need more research and point bo possible sotutkms. A shadowa region of relative darkness within an not necessarily attenuate the light it occludes. In fact, illuminated regionoccurs when an object totally or it can concentrate light. However, as is traditional in partially occludes the light. A transparent object does image synthesis, lve will consider a region to be in
A Clustering Algorithm for Radiosity in Complex Environments
, 1994
"... 1 Introduction Recent trends in realistic image synthesis have been towards a separation of the rendering process into two or more stages[10, 2, 9]. One of these stages solves for the global energy equilibrium throughoutthe environment. This process can be very expensive and its complexity grows ra ..."
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Cited by 141 (5 self)
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1 Introduction Recent trends in realistic image synthesis have been towards a separation of the rendering process into two or more stages[10, 2, 9]. One of these stages solves for the global energy equilibrium throughoutthe environment. This process can be very expensive and its complexity grows rapidly with the number of objects in the environment.These computational demands generally limit the level of detail of environments that can be simulated. Furthermore, a solution to thisproblem must be computed before anything useful can be displayed.
Collision Detection for Deformable Objects
"... Interactive environments for dynamically deforming objects play an important role in surgery simulation and entertainment technology. These environments require fast deformable models and very efficient collision handling techniques. While collision detection for rigid bodies is wellinvestigated, c ..."
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Cited by 122 (18 self)
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Interactive environments for dynamically deforming objects play an important role in surgery simulation and entertainment technology. These environments require fast deformable models and very efficient collision handling techniques. While collision detection for rigid bodies is wellinvestigated, collision detection for deformable objects introduces additional challenging problems. This paper focuses on these aspects and summarizes recent research in the area of deformable collision detection. Various approaches based on bounding volume hierarchies, distance fields, and spatial partitioning are discussed. Further, imagespace techniques and stochastic methods are considered. Applications in cloth modeling and surgical simulation are presented.
A unified hierarchical algorithm for global illumination with scattering volumes and object clusters
 IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph
, 1995
"... Abstract — This paper presents a new radiosity algorithm that allows the simultaneous computation of energy exchanges between surface elements, scattering volume distributions, and groups of surfaces, or object clusters. The new technique is based on a hierarchical formulation of the zonal method, a ..."
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Cited by 119 (27 self)
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Abstract — This paper presents a new radiosity algorithm that allows the simultaneous computation of energy exchanges between surface elements, scattering volume distributions, and groups of surfaces, or object clusters. The new technique is based on a hierarchical formulation of the zonal method, and efficiently integrates volumes and surfaces. In particular no initial linking stage is needed, even for inhomogeneous volumes, thanks to the construction of a global spatial hierarchy. An analogy between object clusters and scattering volumes results in a powerful clustering radiosity algorithm, with no initial linking between surfaces and fast computation of average visibility information through a cluster. We show that the accurate distribution of the energy emitted or received at the cluster level can produce even better results than isotropic clustering at a marginal cost. The resulting algorithm is fast and, more importantly, truly progressive as it allows the quick calculation of approximate solutions with a smooth convergence towards very accurate simulations. I.
Ray Tracing Deformable Scenes using Dynamic Bounding Volume Hierarchies
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 2006
"... The most significant deficiency of most of today’s interactive ray tracers is that they are restricted to static walkthroughs. This restriction is due to the static nature of the acceleration structures used. While the best reported frame rates for static geometric models have been achieved using ca ..."
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Cited by 114 (21 self)
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The most significant deficiency of most of today’s interactive ray tracers is that they are restricted to static walkthroughs. This restriction is due to the static nature of the acceleration structures used. While the best reported frame rates for static geometric models have been achieved using carefully constructed kdtrees, this article shows that bounding volume hierarchies (BVHs) can be used to efficiently ray trace large static models. More importantly, the BVH can be used to ray trace deformable models (sets of triangles whose positions change over time) with little loss of performance. A variety of efficiency techniques are used to achieve this performance, but three algorithmic changes to the typical BVH algorithm are mainly responsible. First, the BVH is built using a variant of the surface area heuristic conventionally used to build kdtrees. Second, the topology of the BVH is not changed over time so that only the bounding volumes need to be refit from frametoframe. Third, and most importantly, packets of rays are traced together through the BVH using a novel integrated packetfrustum traversal scheme. This traversal scheme elegantly combines the advantages of both packet traversal and frustum traversal and allows for rapid hierarchy descent for packets that hit bounding volumes as well as rapid exits for packets that miss. A BVHbased ray tracing system using these techniques is shown to achieve performance for deformable models comparable to that previously available only for static models.