Results 1  10
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340
Discriminative Training Methods for Hidden Markov Models: Theory and Experiments with Perceptron Algorithms
, 2002
"... We describe new algorithms for training tagging models, as an alternative to maximumentropy models or conditional random fields (CRFs). The algorithms rely on Viterbi decoding of training examples, combined with simple additive updates. We describe theory justifying the algorithms through a modific ..."
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Cited by 660 (13 self)
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We describe new algorithms for training tagging models, as an alternative to maximumentropy models or conditional random fields (CRFs). The algorithms rely on Viterbi decoding of training examples, combined with simple additive updates. We describe theory justifying the algorithms through a modification of the proof of convergence of the perceptron algorithm for classification problems. We give experimental results on partofspeech tagging and base noun phrase chunking, in both cases showing improvements over results for a maximumentropy tagger.
Large margin methods for structured and interdependent output variables
 JOURNAL OF MACHINE LEARNING RESEARCH
, 2005
"... Learning general functional dependencies between arbitrary input and output spaces is one of the key challenges in computational intelligence. While recent progress in machine learning has mainly focused on designing flexible and powerful input representations, this paper addresses the complementary ..."
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Cited by 624 (12 self)
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Learning general functional dependencies between arbitrary input and output spaces is one of the key challenges in computational intelligence. While recent progress in machine learning has mainly focused on designing flexible and powerful input representations, this paper addresses the complementary issue of designing classification algorithms that can deal with more complex outputs, such as trees, sequences, or sets. More generally, we consider problems involving multiple dependent output variables, structured output spaces, and classification problems with class attributes. In order to accomplish this, we propose to appropriately generalize the wellknown notion of a separation margin and derive a corresponding maximummargin formulation. While this leads to a quadratic program with a potentially prohibitive, i.e. exponential, number of constraints, we present a cutting plane algorithm that solves the optimization problem in polynomial time for a large class of problems. The proposed method has important applications in areas such as computational biology, natural language processing, information retrieval/extraction, and optical character recognition. Experiments from various domains involving different types of output spaces emphasize the breadth and generality of our approach.
Discriminative Reranking for Natural Language Parsing
, 2005
"... This article considers approaches which rerank the output of an existing probabilistic parser. The base parser produces a set of candidate parses for each input sentence, with associated probabilities that define an initial ranking of these parses. A second model then attempts to improve upon this i ..."
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Cited by 333 (9 self)
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This article considers approaches which rerank the output of an existing probabilistic parser. The base parser produces a set of candidate parses for each input sentence, with associated probabilities that define an initial ranking of these parses. A second model then attempts to improve upon this initial ranking, using additional features of the tree as evidence. The strength of our approach is that it allows a tree to be represented as an arbitrary set of features, without concerns about how these features interact or overlap and without the need to define a derivation or a generative model which takes these features into account. We introduce a new method for the reranking task, based on the boosting approach to ranking problems described in Freund et al. (1998). We apply the boosting method to parsing the Wall Street Journal treebank. The method combined the loglikelihood under a baseline model (that of Collins [1999]) with evidence from an additional 500,000 features over parse trees that were not included in the original model. The new model achieved 89.75 % Fmeasure, a 13 % relative decrease in Fmeasure error over the baseline model’s score of 88.2%. The article also introduces a new algorithm for the boosting approach which takes advantage of the sparsity of the feature space in the parsing data. Experiments show significant efficiency gains for the new algorithm over the obvious implementation of the boosting approach. We argue that the method is an appealing alternative—in terms of both simplicity and efficiency—to work on feature selection methods within loglinear (maximumentropy) models. Although the experiments in this article are on natural language parsing (NLP), the approach should be applicable to many other NLP problems which are naturally framed as ranking tasks, for example, speech recognition, machine translation, or natural language generation.
New Ranking Algorithms for Parsing and Tagging: Kernels over Discrete Structures, and the Voted Perceptron
, 2002
"... This paper introduces new learning algorithms for natural language processing based on the perceptron algorithm. We show how the algorithms can be efficiently applied to exponential sized representations of parse trees, such as the "all subtrees" (DOP) representation described by (Bod 9 ..."
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Cited by 277 (6 self)
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This paper introduces new learning algorithms for natural language processing based on the perceptron algorithm. We show how the algorithms can be efficiently applied to exponential sized representations of parse trees, such as the "all subtrees" (DOP) representation described by (Bod 98), or a representation tracking all subfragments of a tagged sentence. We give experimental results showing significant improvements on two tasks: parsing Wall Street Journal text, and namedentity extraction from web data.
Dependency tree kernels for relation extraction
 In Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL04
, 2004
"... We extend previous work on tree kernels to estimate the similarity between the dependency trees of sentences. Using this kernel within a Support Vector Machine, we detect and classify relations between entities in the Automatic Content Extraction (ACE) corpus of news articles. We examine the utility ..."
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Cited by 263 (2 self)
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We extend previous work on tree kernels to estimate the similarity between the dependency trees of sentences. Using this kernel within a Support Vector Machine, we detect and classify relations between entities in the Automatic Content Extraction (ACE) corpus of news articles. We examine the utility of different features such as Wordnet hypernyms, parts of speech, and entity types, and find that the dependency tree kernel achieves a 20 % F1 improvement over a “bagofwords ” kernel. 1
Hidden Markov Support Vector Machines
, 2003
"... This paper presents a novel discriminative learning technique for label sequences based on a combination of the two most successful learning algorithms, Support Vector Machines and Hidden Markov Models which we call Hidden Markov Support Vector Machine. ..."
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Cited by 248 (9 self)
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This paper presents a novel discriminative learning technique for label sequences based on a combination of the two most successful learning algorithms, Support Vector Machines and Hidden Markov Models which we call Hidden Markov Support Vector Machine.
Kernel Methods for Relation Extraction
, 2002
"... We present an application of kernel methods to extracting relations from unstructured natural language sources. ..."
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Cited by 219 (0 self)
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We present an application of kernel methods to extracting relations from unstructured natural language sources.
Marginalized kernels between labeled graphs
 Proceedings of the Twentieth International Conference on Machine Learning
, 2003
"... A new kernel function between two labeled graphs is presented. Feature vectors are defined as the counts of label paths produced by random walks on graphs. The kernel computation finally boils down to obtaining the stationary state of a discretetime linear system, thus is efficiently performed by s ..."
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Cited by 194 (15 self)
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A new kernel function between two labeled graphs is presented. Feature vectors are defined as the counts of label paths produced by random walks on graphs. The kernel computation finally boils down to obtaining the stationary state of a discretetime linear system, thus is efficiently performed by solving simultaneous linear equations. Our kernel is based on an infinite dimensional feature space, so it is fundamentally different from other string or tree kernels based on dynamic programming. We will present promising empirical results in classification of chemical compounds. 1 1.
On graph kernels: Hardness results and efficient alternatives
 IN: CONFERENCE ON LEARNING THEORY
, 2003
"... As most ‘realworld’ data is structured, research in kernel methods has begun investigating kernels for various kinds of structured data. One of the most widely used tools for modeling structured data are graphs. An interesting and important challenge is thus to investigate kernels on instances tha ..."
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Cited by 184 (6 self)
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As most ‘realworld’ data is structured, research in kernel methods has begun investigating kernels for various kinds of structured data. One of the most widely used tools for modeling structured data are graphs. An interesting and important challenge is thus to investigate kernels on instances that are represented by graphs. So far, only very specific graphs such as trees and strings have been considered. This paper investigates kernels on labeled directed graphs with general structure. It is shown that computing a strictly positive definite graph kernel is at least as hard as solving the graph isomorphism problem. It is also shown that computing an inner product in a feature space indexed by all possible graphs, where each feature counts the number of subgraphs isomorphic to that graph, is NPhard. On the other hand, inner products in an alternative feature space, based on walks in the graph, can be computed in polynomial time. Such kernels are defined in this paper.
Probability product kernels
 Journal of Machine Learning Research
, 2004
"... The advantages of discriminative learning algorithms and kernel machines are combined with generative modeling using a novel kernel between distributions. In the probability product kernel, data points in the input space are mapped to distributions over the sample space and a general inner product i ..."
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Cited by 180 (9 self)
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The advantages of discriminative learning algorithms and kernel machines are combined with generative modeling using a novel kernel between distributions. In the probability product kernel, data points in the input space are mapped to distributions over the sample space and a general inner product is then evaluated as the integral of the product of pairs of distributions. The kernel is straightforward to evaluate for all exponential family models such as multinomials and Gaussians and yields interesting nonlinear kernels. Furthermore, the kernel is computable in closed form for latent distributions such as mixture models, hidden Markov models and linear dynamical systems. For intractable models, such as switching linear dynamical systems, structured meanfield approximations can be brought to bear on the kernel evaluation. For general distributions, even if an analytic expression for the kernel is not feasible, we show a straightforward sampling method to evaluate it. Thus, the kernel permits discriminative learning methods, including support vector machines, to exploit the properties, metrics and invariances of the generative models we infer from each datum. Experiments are shown using multinomial models for text, hidden Markov models for biological data sets and linear dynamical systems for time series data.