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269
Consensus Problems in Networks of Agents with Switching Topology and TimeDelays
, 2003
"... In this paper, we discuss consensus problems for a network of dynamic agents with fixed and switching topologies. We analyze three cases: i) networks with switching topology and no timedelays, ii) networks with fixed topology and communication timedelays, and iii) maxconsensus problems (or leader ..."
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Cited by 1112 (21 self)
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In this paper, we discuss consensus problems for a network of dynamic agents with fixed and switching topologies. We analyze three cases: i) networks with switching topology and no timedelays, ii) networks with fixed topology and communication timedelays, and iii) maxconsensus problems (or leader determination) for groups of discretetime agents. In each case, we introduce a linear/nonlinear consensus protocol and provide convergence analysis for the proposed distributed algorithm. Moreover, we establish a connection between the Fiedler eigenvalue of the information flow in a network (i.e. algebraic connectivity of the network) and the negotiation speed (or performance) of the corresponding agreement protocol. It turns out that balanced digraphs play an important role in addressing averageconsensus problems. We introduce disagreement functions that play the role of Lyapunov functions in convergence analysis of consensus protocols. A distinctive feature of this work is to address consensus problems for networks with directed information flow. We provide analytical tools that rely on algebraic graph theory, matrix theory, and control theory. Simulations are provided that demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results.
Information flow and cooperative control of vehicle formations.
 In Proceeings of 15th IFAC Conference,
, 2002
"... Abstract We consider the problem of cooperation among a collection of vehicles performing a shared task using intervehicle communication to coordinate their actions. We apply tools from graph theory to relate the topology of the communication network to formation stability. We prove a Nyquist crite ..."
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Cited by 551 (11 self)
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Abstract We consider the problem of cooperation among a collection of vehicles performing a shared task using intervehicle communication to coordinate their actions. We apply tools from graph theory to relate the topology of the communication network to formation stability. We prove a Nyquist criterion that uses the eigenvalues of the graph Laplacian matrix to determine the effect of the graph on formation stability. We also propose a method for decentralized information exchange between vehicles. This approach realizes a dynamical system that supplies each vehicle with a common reference to be used for cooperative motion. We prove a separation principle that states that formation stability is achieved if the information flow is stable for the given graph and if the local controller stabilizes the vehicle. The information flow can be rendered highly robust to changes in the graph, thus enabling tight formation control despite limitations in intervehicle communication capability.
Flocking for MultiAgent Dynamic Systems: Algorithms and Theory
, 2006
"... In this paper, we present a theoretical framework for design and analysis of distributed flocking algorithms. Two cases of flocking in freespace and presence of multiple obstacles are considered. We present three flocking algorithms: two for freeflocking and one for constrained flocking. A compre ..."
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Cited by 436 (2 self)
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In this paper, we present a theoretical framework for design and analysis of distributed flocking algorithms. Two cases of flocking in freespace and presence of multiple obstacles are considered. We present three flocking algorithms: two for freeflocking and one for constrained flocking. A comprehensive analysis of the first two algorithms is provided. We demonstrate the first algorithm embodies all three rules of Reynolds. This is a formal approach to extraction of interaction rules that lead to the emergence of collective behavior. We show that the first algorithm generically leads to regular fragmentation, whereas the second and third algorithms both lead to flocking. A systematic method is provided for construction of cost functions (or collective potentials) for flocking. These collective potentials penalize deviation from a class of latticeshape objects called αlattices. We use a multispecies framework for construction of collective potentials that consist of flockmembers, or αagents, and virtual agents associated with αagents called β and γagents. We show that migration of flocks can be performed using a peertopeer network of agents, i.e. “flocks need no leaders.” A “universal” definition of flocking for particle systems with similarities to Lyapunov stability is given. Several simulation results are provided that demonstrate performing 2D and 3D flocking, split/rejoin maneuver, and squeezing maneuver for hundreds of agents using the proposed algorithms.
Graph Laplacians and Stabilization of Vehicle Formations
, 2001
"... Control of vehicle formations has emerged as a topic of significant interest to the controls community. In this paper, we merge tools from graph theory and control theory to derive stability criteria for formation stabilization. The interconnection between vehicles (i.e., which vehicles are sensed b ..."
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Cited by 99 (9 self)
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Control of vehicle formations has emerged as a topic of significant interest to the controls community. In this paper, we merge tools from graph theory and control theory to derive stability criteria for formation stabilization. The interconnection between vehicles (i.e., which vehicles are sensed by other vehicles) is modeled as a graph, and the eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrix of the graph are used in stating a Nyquistlike stability criterion for vehicle formations. The location of the Laplacian eigenvalues can be correlated to the graph structure, and therefore used to identify desirable and undesirable formation interconnection topologies.
Communication Constraints in the Average Consensus Problem
, 2007
"... The interrelationship between control and communication theory is becoming of fundamental importance in many distributed control systems, such as the coordination of a team of autonomous agents. In such a problem, communication constraints impose limits on the achievable control performance. We cons ..."
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Cited by 81 (19 self)
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The interrelationship between control and communication theory is becoming of fundamental importance in many distributed control systems, such as the coordination of a team of autonomous agents. In such a problem, communication constraints impose limits on the achievable control performance. We consider as instance of coordination the consensus problem. The aim of the paper is to characterize the relationship between the amount of information exchanged by the agents and the rate of convergence to the consensus. We show that timeinvariant communication networks with circulant symmetries yield slow convergence if the amount of information exchanged by the agents does not scale well with their number. On the other hand, we show that randomly timevarying communication networks allow very fast convergence rates. We also show that, by adding logarithmic quantized data links to timeinvariant networks with symmetries, control performance significantly improves with little growth of the required communication effort.
Finitetime convergent gradient flows with applications to network consensus
 Automatica
"... This paper introduces the normalized and signed gradient dynamical systems associated with a differentiable function. Extending recent results on nonsmooth stability analysis, we characterize their asymptotic convergence properties and identify conditions that guarantee finitetime convergence. We d ..."
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Cited by 66 (5 self)
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This paper introduces the normalized and signed gradient dynamical systems associated with a differentiable function. Extending recent results on nonsmooth stability analysis, we characterize their asymptotic convergence properties and identify conditions that guarantee finitetime convergence. We discuss the application of the results to the design of multiagent coordination algorithms, paying special attention to their scalability properties. Finally, we consider network consensus problems and show how the proposed nonsmooth gradient flows achieve the desired coordination task in finite time.
Agreement Problems in Networks with Directed Graphs and Switching Topology
, 2003
"... In this paper, we provide tools for convergence and performance analysis of an agreement protocol for a network of integrator agents with directed information ow. Moreover, we analyze algorithmic robustness of this consensus protocol for the case of a network with mobile nodes and switching topol ..."
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Cited by 59 (1 self)
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In this paper, we provide tools for convergence and performance analysis of an agreement protocol for a network of integrator agents with directed information ow. Moreover, we analyze algorithmic robustness of this consensus protocol for the case of a network with mobile nodes and switching topology. We establish a connection between the Fiedler eigenvalue of the graph Laplacian and the performance of this agreement protocol. We demostrate that a class of directed graphs, called balanced graphs, have a crucial role in solving averageconsensus problems. Based on the properties of balanced graphs, a group disagreement function (i.e. Lyapunov function) is proposed for convergence analysis of this agreement protocol for networks with directed graphs. This group disagreement function is later used for convergence analysis for the agreement problem in networks with switching topology. We provide simulation results that are consistent with our theoretical results and demonstrate the eectiveness of the proposed analytical tools.
Parameterized complexity and approximation algorithms
 Comput. J
, 2006
"... Approximation algorithms and parameterized complexity are usually considered to be two separate ways of dealing with hard algorithmic problems. In this paper, our aim is to investigate how these two fields can be combined to achieve better algorithms than what any of the two theories could offer. We ..."
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Cited by 56 (2 self)
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Approximation algorithms and parameterized complexity are usually considered to be two separate ways of dealing with hard algorithmic problems. In this paper, our aim is to investigate how these two fields can be combined to achieve better algorithms than what any of the two theories could offer. We discuss the different ways parameterized complexity can be extended to approximation algorithms, survey results of this type and propose directions for future research. 1.