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The Marriage of Effects and Monads
, 1998
"... this paper is to marry effects to monads, writing T for a computation that yields a value in and may have effects delimited by oe. Now we have that ( is ..."
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Cited by 120 (7 self)
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this paper is to marry effects to monads, writing T for a computation that yields a value in and may have effects delimited by oe. Now we have that ( is
Monads and Effects
 IN INTERNATIONAL SUMMER SCHOOL ON APPLIED SEMANTICS APPSEM’2000
, 2000
"... A tension in language design has been between simple semantics on the one hand, and rich possibilities for sideeffects, exception handling and so on on the other. The introduction of monads has made a large step towards reconciling these alternatives. First proposed by Moggi as a way of structu ..."
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Cited by 75 (6 self)
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A tension in language design has been between simple semantics on the one hand, and rich possibilities for sideeffects, exception handling and so on on the other. The introduction of monads has made a large step towards reconciling these alternatives. First proposed by Moggi as a way of structuring semantic descriptions, they were adopted by Wadler to structure Haskell programs, and now offer a general technique for delimiting the scope of effects, thus reconciling referential transparency and imperative operations within one programming language. Monads have been used to solve longstanding problems such as adding pointers and assignment, interlanguage working, and exception handling to Haskell, without compromising its purely functional semantics. The course will introduce monads, effects and related notions, and exemplify their applications in programming (Haskell) and in compilation (MLj). The course will present typed metalanguages for monads and related categorica...
A Systematic Approach to Static Access Control
, 2001
"... ... This paper develops type systems which can statically guarantee the success of these checks. Our systems allow security properties of programs to be clearly expressed within the types themselves, which thus serve as static declarations of the security policy. We develop these systems using a sys ..."
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Cited by 70 (10 self)
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... This paper develops type systems which can statically guarantee the success of these checks. Our systems allow security properties of programs to be clearly expressed within the types themselves, which thus serve as static declarations of the security policy. We develop these systems using a systematic methodology: we show that the securitypassing style translation, proposed by Wallach, Appel and Felten as a dynamic implementation technique, also gives rise to static securityaware type systems, by composition with conventional type systems. To de ne the latter, we use the general HM(X) framework, and easily construct several constraint and unificationbased type systems.
A functional correspondence between monadic evaluators and abstract machines for languages with computational effects
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 2005
"... Abstract. We extend our correspondence between evaluators and abstract machines from the pure setting of the λcalculus to the impure setting of the computational λcalculus. We show how to derive new abstract machines from monadic evaluators for the computational λcalculus. Starting from (1) a gen ..."
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Cited by 47 (22 self)
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Abstract. We extend our correspondence between evaluators and abstract machines from the pure setting of the λcalculus to the impure setting of the computational λcalculus. We show how to derive new abstract machines from monadic evaluators for the computational λcalculus. Starting from (1) a generic evaluator parameterized by a monad and (2) a monad specifying a computational effect, we inline the components of the monad in the generic evaluator to obtain an evaluator written in a style that is specific to this computational effect. We then derive the corresponding abstract machine by closureconverting, CPStransforming, and defunctionalizing this specific evaluator. We illustrate the construction with the identity monad, obtaining yet again the CEK machine, and with a lifted state monad, obtaining a variant of the CEK machine with error and state. In addition, we characterize the tailrecursive stack inspection presented by Clements and Felleisen at ESOP 2003 as a lifted state monad. This enables us to combine the stackinspection monad with other monads and to construct abstract machines for languages with properly tailrecursive stack inspection and other computational effects. The construction scales to other monads—including one more properly dedicated to stack inspection than the lifted state monad—and other monadic evaluators. Keywords. Lambdacalculus, interpreters, abstract machines, closure conversion, transformation into continuationpassing style (CPS), defunctionalization, monads, effects, proper
Combining effects: sum and tensor
"... We seek a unified account of modularity for computational effects. We begin by reformulating Moggi’s monadic paradigm for modelling computational effects using the notion of enriched Lawvere theory, together with its relationship with strong monads; this emphasises the importance of the operations ..."
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Cited by 45 (5 self)
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We seek a unified account of modularity for computational effects. We begin by reformulating Moggi’s monadic paradigm for modelling computational effects using the notion of enriched Lawvere theory, together with its relationship with strong monads; this emphasises the importance of the operations that produce the effects. Effects qua theories are then combined by appropriate bifunctors on the category of theories. We give a theory for the sum of computational effects, which in particular yields Moggi’s exceptions monad transformer and an interactive input/output monad transformer. We further give a theory of the commutative combination of effects, their tensor, which yields Moggi’s sideeffects monad transformer. Finally we give a theory of operation transformers, for redefining operations when adding new effects; we derive explicit forms for the operation transformers associated to the above monad transformers.
Practical RefinementType Checking
, 1997
"... Refinement types allow many more properties of programs to be expressed and statically checked than conventional type systems. We present a practical algorithm for refinementtype checking in a calculus enriched with refinementtype annotations. We prove that our basic algorithm is sound and comple ..."
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Cited by 37 (1 self)
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Refinement types allow many more properties of programs to be expressed and statically checked than conventional type systems. We present a practical algorithm for refinementtype checking in a calculus enriched with refinementtype annotations. We prove that our basic algorithm is sound and complete, and show that every term which has a refinement type can be annotated as required by our algorithm. Our positive experience with an implementation of an extension of this algorithm to the full core language of Standard ML demonstrates that refinement types can be a practical program development tool in a realistic programming language. The required refinement type definitions and annotations are not much of a burden and serve as formal, machinechecked explanations of code invariants which otherwise would remain implicit. 1 Introduction The advantages of staticallytyped programming languages are well known, and have been described many times (e.g. see [Car97]). However, conventional ty...
Delimited Dynamic Binding
, 2006
"... Dynamic binding and delimited control are useful together in many settings, including Web applications, database cursors, and mobile code. We examine this pair of language features to show that the semantics of their interaction is illdefined yet not expressive enough for these uses. We solve this ..."
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Cited by 34 (14 self)
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Dynamic binding and delimited control are useful together in many settings, including Web applications, database cursors, and mobile code. We examine this pair of language features to show that the semantics of their interaction is illdefined yet not expressive enough for these uses. We solve this open and subtle problem. We formalise a typed language DB+DC that combines a calculus DB of dynamic binding and a calculus DC of delimited control. We argue from theoretical and practical points of view that its semantics should be based on delimited dynamic binding: capturing a delimited continuation closes over part of the dynamic environment, rather than all or none of it; reinstating the captured continuation supplements the dynamic environment, rather than replacing or inheriting it. We introduce a type and reductionpreserving translation from DB + DC to DC, which proves that delimited control macroexpresses dynamic binding. We use this translation to implement DB + DC in Scheme, OCaml, and Haskell. We extend DB + DC with mutable dynamic variables and a facility to obtain not only the latest binding of a dynamic variable but also older bindings. This facility provides for stack inspection and (more generally) folding over the execution context as an inductive data structure.
Dealing with Large Bananas
 UNIVERSITEIT UTRECHT
, 2000
"... Many problems call for a mixture of generic and specific programming techniques. We propose a polytypic programming approach based on generalised (monadic) folds where a separation is made between basic fold algebras that model generic behaviour and updates on these algebras that model specific beh ..."
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Cited by 32 (11 self)
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Many problems call for a mixture of generic and specific programming techniques. We propose a polytypic programming approach based on generalised (monadic) folds where a separation is made between basic fold algebras that model generic behaviour and updates on these algebras that model specific behaviour. We identify particular basic algebras as well as some algebra combinators, and we show how these facilitate structured programming with updatable fold algebras. This blend of genericity and specificity allows programming with folds to scale up to applications involving large systems of mutually recursive datatypes. Finally, we address the possibility of providing generic definitions for the functions, algebras, and combinators that we propose.
Handlers of Algebraic Effects
"... Abstract. We present an algebraic treatment of exception handlers and, more generally, introduce handlers for other computational effects representable by an algebraic theory. These include nondeterminism, interactive input/output, concurrency, state, time, and their combinations; in all cases the c ..."
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Cited by 24 (1 self)
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Abstract. We present an algebraic treatment of exception handlers and, more generally, introduce handlers for other computational effects representable by an algebraic theory. These include nondeterminism, interactive input/output, concurrency, state, time, and their combinations; in all cases the computation monad is the freemodel monad of the theory. Each such handler corresponds to a model of the theory for the effects at hand. The handling construct, which applies a handler to a computation, is based on the one introduced by Benton and Kennedy, and is interpreted using the homomorphism induced by the universal property of the free model. This general construct can be used to describe previously unrelated concepts from both theory and practice. 1
Reuse by Program Transformation
 Functional Programming Trends 1999. Intellect, 2000. Selected papers from the 1st Scottish Functional Programming Workshop
, 2000
"... Certain adaptations, that are usually performed manually by functional programmers are formalized by program transformations in this paper. We focus on adaptations to obtain a more reusable version of a program or a version needed for a special use case. The paper provides a few examples, namely pro ..."
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Cited by 23 (8 self)
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Certain adaptations, that are usually performed manually by functional programmers are formalized by program transformations in this paper. We focus on adaptations to obtain a more reusable version of a program or a version needed for a special use case. The paper provides a few examples, namely propagation of additional parameters, introduction of monadic style, and symbolic rewriting. The corresponding transformations are specified by inference rules in the style of natural semantics. Preservation properties such as type and semantics preservation are discussed. The overall thesis of this paper is that suitable operator suites for automated adaptations and a corresponding transformational programming style can eventually be combined with other programming styles, such as polymorphic programming, modular programming, or the monadic style, in order to improve reusability of functional programs. ⋆ Partial support received from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) under the Generation of Program Transformation Systems project