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45
ContentBased Music Information Retrieval: Current Directions and Future Challenges
, 2008
"... ..."
Music retrieval: a tutorial and review
 Foundations and Trends in Information Retrieval, 1(1):1–90
, 2006
"... The increasing availability of music in digital format needs to be matched by the development of tools for music accessing, filtering, classification, and retrieval. The research area of Music Information Retrieval (MIR) covers many of these aspects. The aim of this paper is to present an overview o ..."
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Cited by 36 (2 self)
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The increasing availability of music in digital format needs to be matched by the development of tools for music accessing, filtering, classification, and retrieval. The research area of Music Information Retrieval (MIR) covers many of these aspects. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of this vast and new field. A number of issues, which are peculiar to the music language, are described—including forms, formats, and dimensions of music—together with the typologies of users and their information needs. To fulfil these needs a number of approaches are discussed, from direct search to information filtering and clustering of music documents. An overview of the techniques for music processing, which are commonly exploited in many approaches, is also presented. Evaluation and comparisons of the approaches on a common benchmark are other important issues. To this end, a description of the initial efforts and evaluation campaigns for MIR is provided. 1
Searching notated polyphonic music using transportation distances
 In Proceedings of the ACM Multimedia Conference
, 2004
"... We present a method for searching databases of symbolically represented polyphonic music that exploits advantages of transportation distances such as continuity and partial matching in the pitch dimension. By segmenting queries and database documents, we also gain partial matching in the time dimens ..."
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Cited by 32 (6 self)
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We present a method for searching databases of symbolically represented polyphonic music that exploits advantages of transportation distances such as continuity and partial matching in the pitch dimension. By segmenting queries and database documents, we also gain partial matching in the time dimension. Thus, we can find short queries in long database documents, and have a method more robust against pitch and tempo fluctuations in the queries or database documents than we would with transportation distances alone. We compare our method with three algorithms from the CBrahms project by Lemström et al. and with PROMS by Clausen et al. and find that our method is more generally usable, retrieves a higher number of relevant documents than all three compared algorithms, and that it is faster than CBrahms. This is the first comparative study of these algorithms involving a large database with about half a million of documents.
Pattern matching in polyphonic music as a weighted geometric translation problem
 In Proc. 5th International Conference on Music Information Retrieval
, 2004
"... We consider the music pattern matching problem—to find occurrences of a small fragment of music called the “pattern” in a larger body of music called the “score”—as a problem of translating a set of horizontal line segments in the plane to find the best match in a larger set of horizontal line segme ..."
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Cited by 23 (1 self)
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We consider the music pattern matching problem—to find occurrences of a small fragment of music called the “pattern” in a larger body of music called the “score”—as a problem of translating a set of horizontal line segments in the plane to find the best match in a larger set of horizontal line segments. Our contribution is that we use fairly general weight functions to measure the quality of a match, thus enabling approximate pattern matching. We give an algorithm with running time O(nm log m), where n is the size of the score and m is the size of the pattern. We show that the problem, in this geometric formulation, is unlikely to have a significantly faster algorithm because it is at least as hard as a basic problem called 3SUM that is conjectured to have no subquadratic algorithm. We present some examples to show the potential of this method for finding minor variations of a theme, and for finding polyphonic musical patterns in a polyphonic score. 1.
Pointset algorithms for pattern discovery and pattern matching in music
 In ContentBased Retrieval, Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings
, 2006
"... Abstract. An algorithm that discovers the themes, motives and other perceptually significant repeated patterns in a musical work can be used, for example, in a music information retrieval system for indexing a collection of music documents so that it can be searched more rapidly. It can also be used ..."
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Abstract. An algorithm that discovers the themes, motives and other perceptually significant repeated patterns in a musical work can be used, for example, in a music information retrieval system for indexing a collection of music documents so that it can be searched more rapidly. It can also be used in software tools for music analysis and composition and in a music transcription system or model of music cognition for discovering grouping structure, metrical structure and voiceleading structure. In most approaches to pattern discovery in music, the data is assumed to be in the form of strings. However, stringbased methods become inefficient when one is interested in finding highly embellished occurrences of a query pattern or searching for polyphonic patterns in polyphonic music. These limitations can be avoided by representing the music as a set of points in a multidimensional Euclidean space. This pointset pattern matching approach allows the maximal repeated patterns in a passage of polyphonic music to be discovered in quadratic time and all occurrences of these patterns to be found in cubic time. More recently, Clifford et al. [1] have shown that the best match for a query point set within a text point set of size n can be found in O(n log n) time by incorporating randomised projection, uniform hashing and FFT into the pointset pattern matching approach. Also, by using appropriate heuristics for selecting compact maximal repeated patterns with many nonoverlapping occurrences, the pointset pattern discovery algorithms described here can be adapted for data compression. Moreover, the efficient encodings generated when this compression algorithm is run on music data seem to resemble the motivicthematic analyses produced by human experts. Keywords. Contentbased music information retrieval, pointset pattern matching 1
Optimizations of Local Edition for Evaluating Similarity Between Monophonic Musical Sequences
 In RIAO 2007: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Information Retrieval  LargeScale Semantic Access to Content (Text, Image, Video and Sound
, 2007
"... Abstract: Melody is an important property for the perceptual description of Western musical pieces. In the monophonic context, retrieval systems based on melodic similarity generally consider sequences of pitches and durations. Algorithms that have been proposed for measuring melodic similarity rely ..."
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Abstract: Melody is an important property for the perceptual description of Western musical pieces. In the monophonic context, retrieval systems based on melodic similarity generally consider sequences of pitches and durations. Algorithms that have been proposed for measuring melodic similarity rely on geometric representations, string matching techniques, etc. Adaptations of edit distance based algorithms, mainly applied in bioinformatic applications, to the musical domain have already been proposed. However, we present in this paper several experiments in order to optimize these methods. The different possible representations for pitches and durations are discussed and evaluated. Optimizations specific to musical applications are proposed and imply significant improvements of the algorithm. Evaluation of this algorithm led to the best results during the MIREX 2006 symbolic melodic similarity contest.
Algorithms for Computing Geometric Measures of Melodic Similarity
, 2004
"... Consider two orthogonal closed chains on a cylinder. These chains are monotone with respect to the tangential Θ direction. We wish to rigidly move one chain so that the total area between the two is minimized. This minimization is a geometric measure of similarity between two melodies proposed by Ó ..."
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Cited by 10 (2 self)
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Consider two orthogonal closed chains on a cylinder. These chains are monotone with respect to the tangential Θ direction. We wish to rigidly move one chain so that the total area between the two is minimized. This minimization is a geometric measure of similarity between two melodies proposed by Ó Maidín. The Θ direction represents time and the axial direction, z, represents pitch. Let the two chains have n and m vertices respectively, where n ≥ m, We present an O(n + m) time algorithm if Θ is fixed, and an O(nm log(n + m)) time algorithm for general rigid motions. These bounds also apply for planar orthogonal monotone open chains, where area is measured only within the common domain of the two chains in the direction
Algorithms for polyphonic music retrieval: the Hausdorff metric and geometric hashing
 In ISMIR Conference Proceedings
, 2007
"... We consider two formulations of the computational problem of transpositioninvariant, timeoffset tolerant, meterinvariant, and timescale invariant polyphonic music retrieval. We provide algorithms for both that are scalable in the sense that space requirements are asymptotically linear and queries ..."
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Cited by 9 (0 self)
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We consider two formulations of the computational problem of transpositioninvariant, timeoffset tolerant, meterinvariant, and timescale invariant polyphonic music retrieval. We provide algorithms for both that are scalable in the sense that space requirements are asymptotically linear and queries are efficient for large databases of music. The focus is on cases where a query pattern M consisting of m events is to be matched against a database N consisting of n events, and m ≪ n. The database is assumed to be polyphonic, and the algorithms support polyphonic queries. We are interested in finding exact and proximate occurrences of the query pattern. The first problem considered is that of finding the minimum directed Hausdorff distance from M to N. We give a (2 + ǫ)approximation algorithm that solves this problem in O (nm) query time and O (n) space. The second problem is that of finding all maximal subset matches of M in N, and we give an algorithm that solves this problem in O ( m 3 (k + 1)) query time and O ( w 2 n) space, where w represents the maximum window size and k is the number of matches. Using the same method, the problem can be solved in O (m (k + 1)) query time and O (wn) space if we do not require the timescale invariance property. The latter query time is asymptotically optimal for the given problem. 1
The CBRAHMS Project
 Johns Hopkins University
, 2003
"... The CBRAHMS project develops computational methods for contentbased retrieval and analysis of music data. A summary of the recent algorithmic and experimental developments of the project is given. ..."
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Cited by 8 (1 self)
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The CBRAHMS project develops computational methods for contentbased retrieval and analysis of music data. A summary of the recent algorithmic and experimental developments of the project is given.
A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ALGORITHMS FOR DISCOVERING TRANSLATIONAL PATTERNS IN BAROQUE KEYBOARD WORKS
"... We consider the problem of intraopus pattern discovery, that is, the task of discovering patterns of a specified type within a piece of music. A music analyst undertook this task for works by Domenico Scarlattti and Johann Sebastian Bach, forming a benchmark of ‘target ’ patterns. The performance o ..."
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We consider the problem of intraopus pattern discovery, that is, the task of discovering patterns of a specified type within a piece of music. A music analyst undertook this task for works by Domenico Scarlattti and Johann Sebastian Bach, forming a benchmark of ‘target ’ patterns. The performance of two existing algorithms and one of our own creation, called SIACT, is evaluated by comparison with this benchmark. SIACT outperforms the existing algorithms with regard to recall and, more often than not, precision. It is demonstrated that in all but the most carefully selected excerpts of music, the two existing algorithms can be affected by what is termed the ‘problem of isolated membership’. Central to the relative success of SIACT is our intention that it should address this particular problem. The paper contrasts stringbased and geometric approaches to pattern discovery, with an introduction to the latter. Suggestions for future work are given. 1.