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559
Conditional random fields: Probabilistic models for segmenting and labeling sequence data
, 2001
"... We present conditional random fields, a framework for building probabilistic models to segment and label sequence data. Conditional random fields offer several advantages over hidden Markov models and stochastic grammars for such tasks, including the ability to relax strong independence assumptions ..."
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Cited by 3481 (85 self)
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We present conditional random fields, a framework for building probabilistic models to segment and label sequence data. Conditional random fields offer several advantages over hidden Markov models and stochastic grammars for such tasks, including the ability to relax strong independence assumptions made in those models. Conditional random fields also avoid a fundamental limitation of maximum entropy Markov models (MEMMs) and other discriminative Markov models based on directed graphical models, which can be biased towards states with few successor states. We present iterative parameter estimation algorithms for conditional random fields and compare the performance of the resulting models to HMMs and MEMMs on synthetic and naturallanguage data. 1.
Dynamic Bayesian Networks: Representation, Inference and Learning
, 2002
"... Modelling sequential data is important in many areas of science and engineering. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) and Kalman filter models (KFMs) are popular for this because they are simple and flexible. For example, HMMs have been used for speech recognition and biosequence analysis, and KFMs have bee ..."
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Cited by 768 (3 self)
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Modelling sequential data is important in many areas of science and engineering. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) and Kalman filter models (KFMs) are popular for this because they are simple and flexible. For example, HMMs have been used for speech recognition and biosequence analysis, and KFMs have been used for problems ranging from tracking planes and missiles to predicting the economy. However, HMMs
and KFMs are limited in their “expressive power”. Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs) generalize HMMs by allowing the state space to be represented in factored form, instead of as a single discrete random variable. DBNs generalize KFMs by allowing arbitrary probability distributions, not just (unimodal) linearGaussian. In this thesis, I will discuss how to represent many different kinds of models as DBNs, how to perform exact and approximate inference in DBNs, and how to learn DBN models from sequential data.
In particular, the main novel technical contributions of this thesis are as follows: a way of representing
Hierarchical HMMs as DBNs, which enables inference to be done in O(T) time instead of O(T 3), where T is the length of the sequence; an exact smoothing algorithm that takes O(log T) space instead of O(T); a simple way of using the junction tree algorithm for online inference in DBNs; new complexity bounds on exact online inference in DBNs; a new deterministic approximate inference algorithm called factored frontier; an analysis of the relationship between the BK algorithm and loopy belief propagation; a way of
applying RaoBlackwellised particle filtering to DBNs in general, and the SLAM (simultaneous localization
and mapping) problem in particular; a way of extending the structural EM algorithm to DBNs; and a variety of different applications of DBNs. However, perhaps the main value of the thesis is its catholic presentation of the field of sequential data modelling.
Discriminative Training Methods for Hidden Markov Models: Theory and Experiments with Perceptron Algorithms
, 2002
"... We describe new algorithms for training tagging models, as an alternative to maximumentropy models or conditional random fields (CRFs). The algorithms rely on Viterbi decoding of training examples, combined with simple additive updates. We describe theory justifying the algorithms through a modific ..."
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Cited by 659 (13 self)
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We describe new algorithms for training tagging models, as an alternative to maximumentropy models or conditional random fields (CRFs). The algorithms rely on Viterbi decoding of training examples, combined with simple additive updates. We describe theory justifying the algorithms through a modification of the proof of convergence of the perceptron algorithm for classification problems. We give experimental results on partofspeech tagging and base noun phrase chunking, in both cases showing improvements over results for a maximumentropy tagger.
Anomaly Detection: A Survey
, 2007
"... Anomaly detection is an important problem that has been researched within diverse research areas and application domains. Many anomaly detection techniques have been specifically developed for certain application domains, while others are more generic. This survey tries to provide a structured and c ..."
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Cited by 538 (5 self)
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Anomaly detection is an important problem that has been researched within diverse research areas and application domains. Many anomaly detection techniques have been specifically developed for certain application domains, while others are more generic. This survey tries to provide a structured and comprehensive overview of the research on anomaly detection. We have grouped existing techniques into different categories based on the underlying approach adopted by each technique. For each category we have identified key assumptions, which are used by the techniques to differentiate between normal and anomalous behavior. When applying a given technique to a particular domain, these assumptions can be used as guidelines to assess the effectiveness of the technique in that domain. For each category, we provide a basic anomaly detection technique, and then show how the different existing techniques in that category are variants of the basic technique. This template provides an easier and succinct understanding of the techniques belonging to each category. Further, for each category, we identify the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques in that category. We also provide a discussion on the computational complexity of the techniques since it is an important issue in real application domains. We hope that this survey will provide a better understanding of the di®erent directions in which research has been done on this topic, and how techniques developed in one area can be applied in domains for which they were not intended to begin with.
Duplicate Record Detection: A Survey
, 2007
"... Often, in the real world, entities have two or more representations in databases. Duplicate records do not share a common key and/or they contain errors that make duplicate matching a difficult task. Errors are introduced as the result of transcription errors, incomplete information, lack of standa ..."
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Cited by 446 (11 self)
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Often, in the real world, entities have two or more representations in databases. Duplicate records do not share a common key and/or they contain errors that make duplicate matching a difficult task. Errors are introduced as the result of transcription errors, incomplete information, lack of standard formats, or any combination of these factors. In this paper, we present a thorough analysis of the literature on duplicate record detection. We cover similarity metrics that are commonly used to detect similar field entries, and we present an extensive set of duplicate detection algorithms that can detect approximately duplicate records in a database. We also cover multiple techniques for improving the efficiency and scalability of approximate duplicate detection algorithms. We conclude with coverage of existing tools and with a brief discussion of the big open problems in the area.
Hidden Markov Support Vector Machines
, 2003
"... This paper presents a novel discriminative learning technique for label sequences based on a combination of the two most successful learning algorithms, Support Vector Machines and Hidden Markov Models which we call Hidden Markov Support Vector Machine. ..."
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Cited by 247 (9 self)
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This paper presents a novel discriminative learning technique for label sequences based on a combination of the two most successful learning algorithms, Support Vector Machines and Hidden Markov Models which we call Hidden Markov Support Vector Machine.
Efficiently Inducing Features of Conditional Random Fields
, 2003
"... Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) are undirected graphical models, a special case of which correspond to conditionallytrained finite state machines. A key advantage of CRFs is their great flexibility to include a wide variety of arbitrary, nonindependent features of the input. Faced with ..."
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Cited by 233 (12 self)
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Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) are undirected graphical models, a special case of which correspond to conditionallytrained finite state machines. A key advantage of CRFs is their great flexibility to include a wide variety of arbitrary, nonindependent features of the input. Faced with
Kernel Methods for Relation Extraction
, 2002
"... We present an application of kernel methods to extracting relations from unstructured natural language sources. ..."
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Cited by 219 (0 self)
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We present an application of kernel methods to extracting relations from unstructured natural language sources.
Domain adaptation for statistical classifiers
 J. Artif. Int. Res
, 2006
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Conditional random fields for object recognition.
 In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 17, NIPS ’04,
, 2004
"... Abstract We present a discriminative partbased approach for the recognition of object classes from unsegmented cluttered scenes. Objects are modeled as flexible constellations of parts conditioned on local observations found by an interest operator. For each object class the probability of a given ..."
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Cited by 171 (9 self)
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Abstract We present a discriminative partbased approach for the recognition of object classes from unsegmented cluttered scenes. Objects are modeled as flexible constellations of parts conditioned on local observations found by an interest operator. For each object class the probability of a given assignment of parts to local features is modeled by a Conditional Random Field (CRF). We propose an extension of the CRF framework that incorporates hidden variables and combines class conditional CRFs into a unified framework for partbased object recognition. The parameters of the CRF are estimated in a maximum likelihood framework and recognition proceeds by finding the most likely class under our model. The main advantage of the proposed CRF framework is that it allows us to relax the assumption of conditional independence of the observed data (i.e. local features) often used in generative approaches, an assumption that might be too restrictive for a considerable number of object classes.