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236
Introduction to RF simulation and its application,”
 IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits,
, 1999
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Predicting the Phase Noise and Jitter of PLLBased Frequency Synthesizers. www.designersguide.com
, 2003
"... Version 4g, August 2006 Two methodologies are presented for predicting the phase noise and jitter of a PLLbased frequency synthesizer using simulation that are both accurate and efficient. The methodologies begin by characterizing the noise behavior of the blocks that make up the PLL using transisto ..."
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Cited by 37 (2 self)
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Version 4g, August 2006 Two methodologies are presented for predicting the phase noise and jitter of a PLLbased frequency synthesizer using simulation that are both accurate and efficient. The methodologies begin by characterizing the noise behavior of the blocks that make up the PLL using transistorlevel RF simulation. For each block, the phase noise or jitter is extracted and applied to a model for the entire PLL.
Timeslotted roundtrip carrier synchronization for distributed beamforming
 IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing
, 2008
"... Abstract — We consider the problem of synchronizing the carriers of two sources in a wireless communication system with one destination. Carrier synchronization has been considered recently in cooperative communication systems where the sources wish to pool their antenna resources and transmit as a ..."
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Cited by 37 (4 self)
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Abstract — We consider the problem of synchronizing the carriers of two sources in a wireless communication system with one destination. Carrier synchronization has been considered recently in cooperative communication systems where the sources wish to pool their antenna resources and transmit as a “distributed beamformer”. Based on the concept of roundtrip carrier synchronization first described in [1], we propose a new timeslotted roundtrip carrier synchronization system and describe its implementation in systems with singlepath or multipath channels. The performance of the timeslotted roundtrip carrier synchronization system is investigated in terms of the phase offset at the destination and the expected beamforming time before resynchronization is required. Our results suggest that the synchronization overhead can be small with respect to the potential beamforming gains. I.
Noise analysis of phaselocked loops
 IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Fundam. Theory Appl
, 2002
"... Abstract—This work addresses the problem of noise analysis of phaselocked loops (PLLs). The problem is formulated as a stochastic differential equation and is solved in the presence of circuit white noise sources yielding the spectrum of the PLL output. Specifically, the effect of loop filter chara ..."
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Cited by 36 (1 self)
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Abstract—This work addresses the problem of noise analysis of phaselocked loops (PLLs). The problem is formulated as a stochastic differential equation and is solved in the presence of circuit white noise sources yielding the spectrum of the PLL output. Specifically, the effect of loop filter characteristics, phasefrequency detector, and phase noise of the openloop voltagecontrolled oscillator (VCO) on the PLL output spectrum is quantified. These results are derived using a full nonlinear analysis of the VCO in the feedback loop and cannot be predicted using traditional linear analyses or the phase noise analysis of openloop oscillators. The computed spectrum matches well with measured results; specifically, the shape of the output spectrum matches very well with measured PLL output spectra reported in the literature for different kinds of loop filters and phase detectors. The PLL output spectrum computation only requires the phase noise of the VCO, loop filter and phase detector noise, phase detector gain, and loop filter transfer function and does not require the transient simulation of the entire PLL which can be very expensive. The noise analysis technique is illustrated with some examples. Index Terms—Noise analysis, phaselocked loops, stochastic differential equations. I.
Effects of Phase Noise on OFDM Systems With and Without PLL: Characterization and Compensation
"... Abstract—In this paper, we propose an algorithm for suppressing intercarrier interference due to phase noise in coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. The algorithm approximates the phasenoise waveform by using a Fourier series approximation for the current phasenoise rea ..."
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Cited by 32 (1 self)
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Abstract—In this paper, we propose an algorithm for suppressing intercarrier interference due to phase noise in coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. The algorithm approximates the phasenoise waveform by using a Fourier series approximation for the current phasenoise realization. Thereby, it cancels the effects of the phase noise beyond the standard common phase error correction used in contemporary OFDM standards. The algorithm requires that the correlation properties of the intercarrier interference are known. We calculate these properties in terms of the phasenoise spectral correlation matrix for both Wiener and Ornstein–Uhlenbeck phasenoise models, respectively. This modeling corresponds to a freerunning oscillator, as well as a phaselocked loop realization of the local oscillator in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing transceivers. For both transceiver configurations, we investigate the performance of the proposed algorithm. It is demonstrated that the new algorithm achieves as much as one order of magnitude better performance in terms of packet/bit error rate when compared to a receiver with only the common phase error suppression. Index Terms—Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), phaselocked loop, phase noise. I.
Massive MIMO Systems with NonIdeal Hardware: Energy Efficiency, Estimation, and Capacity Limits
, 2014
"... The use of largescale antenna arrays can bring substantial improvements in energy and/or spectral efficiency to wireless systems due to the greatly improved spatial resolution and array gain. Recent works in the field of massive multipleinput multipleoutput (MIMO) show that the user channels dec ..."
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Cited by 29 (6 self)
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The use of largescale antenna arrays can bring substantial improvements in energy and/or spectral efficiency to wireless systems due to the greatly improved spatial resolution and array gain. Recent works in the field of massive multipleinput multipleoutput (MIMO) show that the user channels decorrelate when the number of antennas at the base stations (BSs) increases, thus strong signal gains are achievable with little interuser interference. Since these results rely on asymptotics, it is important to investigate whether the conventional system models are reasonable in this asymptotic regime. This paper considers a new system model that incorporates general transceiver hardware impairments at both the BSs (equipped with large antenna arrays) and the singleantenna user equipments (UEs). As opposed to the conventional case of ideal hardware, we show that hardware impairments create finite ceilings on the channel estimation accuracy and on the downlink/uplink capacity of each UE. Surprisingly, the capacity is mainly limited by the hardware at the UE, while the impact of impairments in the largescale arrays vanishes asymptotically and interuser interference (in particular, pilot contamination) becomes negligible. Furthermore, we prove that the huge degrees of freedom offered by massive MIMO can be used to reduce the transmit power and/or to tolerate larger hardware impairments, which allows for the use of inexpensive and energyefficient antenna elements.
Phase Noise in Oscillators: DAEs and Colored Noise Sources
 IEEE/ACM International Conference on CAD
, 1998
"... Oscillators are key components of electronic systems. Undesired perturbations, i.e. noise, in practical electronic systems adversely affect the spectral and timing properties of oscillators resulting in phase noise, which is a key performance limiting factor, being a major contributor to biterrorr ..."
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Cited by 23 (2 self)
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Oscillators are key components of electronic systems. Undesired perturbations, i.e. noise, in practical electronic systems adversely affect the spectral and timing properties of oscillators resulting in phase noise, which is a key performance limiting factor, being a major contributor to biterrorrate (BER) of RF communication systems, and creating synchronization problems in clocked and sampleddata systems. In this paper, we first present a theory and numerical methods for nonlinear perturbation and noise analysis of oscillators described by a system of differentialalgebraic equations (DAEs), which extends our recent results on perturbation analysis of autonomous ordinary differential equations (ODEs). In developing the above theory, we rely on novel results we establish for linear periodically timevarying (LPTV) systems: Floquet theory for DAEs. We then use this nonlinear perturbation analysis to derive the stochastic characterization, including the resulting oscillator spectrum, of phase noise in oscillators due to colored (e.g., 1 = f noise), as opposed to white, noise sources. The case of white noise sources has already been treated by us in a recent publication. The results of the theory developed in this work enabled us to implement a rigorous and effective analysis and design tool in a circuit simulator for low phase noise oscillator design. 1
Analytic and Asymptotic Analysis of Bayesian CramérRao Bound for Dynamical Phase . . .
, 2007
"... In this paper, we present a closedform expression of a Bayesian CramérRao lower bound for the estimation of a dynamical phase offset in a nondataaided BPSK transmitting context. This kind of bound is derived considering two different scenarios: a first expression is obtained in an offline conte ..."
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Cited by 22 (6 self)
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In this paper, we present a closedform expression of a Bayesian CramérRao lower bound for the estimation of a dynamical phase offset in a nondataaided BPSK transmitting context. This kind of bound is derived considering two different scenarios: a first expression is obtained in an offline context and then, a second expression in an online context logically follows. The SNRasymptotic expressions of this bound drive us to introduce a new asymptotic bound, namely the Asymptotic Bayesian CramérRao Bound. This bound is close to the classical Bayesian bound but is easier to evaluate.
Noise in Mixers, Oscillators, Samplers, and Logic: An Introduction to Cyclostationary Noise
, 2000
"... The origins and characteristics of cyclostationary noise are described in a way that allows designers to understand the impact of cyclostationarity on their circuits. In particular, cyclostationary noise in timevarying systems (mixers), sampling systems (switched filters and sample/holds), threshol ..."
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Cited by 22 (8 self)
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The origins and characteristics of cyclostationary noise are described in a way that allows designers to understand the impact of cyclostationarity on their circuits. In particular, cyclostationary noise in timevarying systems (mixers), sampling systems (switched filters and sample/holds), thresholding systems (logic circuitry), and autonomous systems (oscillators) is discussed.
Analysis of Jitter in PhaseLocked Loops
 IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems
, 2002
"... Abstract—Jitter in clock signals is analyzed, linking noise in freerunning oscillators to shortterm and longterm timedomain behavior of phaselocked loops. Particular attention is given to comparing the impact of 1 noise and white noise in oscillators and frequency dividers on jitter in phaselo ..."
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Cited by 20 (0 self)
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Abstract—Jitter in clock signals is analyzed, linking noise in freerunning oscillators to shortterm and longterm timedomain behavior of phaselocked loops. Particular attention is given to comparing the impact of 1 noise and white noise in oscillators and frequency dividers on jitter in phaselocked loops of firstand secondorder. Theoretical analysis is supported by results obtained using mixedsignal behavior simulation. Index Terms—1 noise, frequency dividers, jitter, oscillators, phase noise, phaselocked loops (PLLs), white noise. I.