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279
On the topologies formed by selfish peers
 In PODC ’06
"... Current peertopeer (P2P) systems often suffer from a large fraction of freeriders not contributing any resources to the network. Various mechanisms have been designed to overcome this problem. However, the selfish behavior of peers has aspects which go beyond resource sharing. This paper studies t ..."
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Cited by 54 (5 self)
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Current peertopeer (P2P) systems often suffer from a large fraction of freeriders not contributing any resources to the network. Various mechanisms have been designed to overcome this problem. However, the selfish behavior of peers has aspects which go beyond resource sharing. This paper studies the effects on the topology of a P2P network if peers selfishly select the peers to connect to. In our model, a peer exploits locality properties in order to minimize the latency (or response times) of its lookup operations. At the same time, the peer aims at not having to maintain links to too many other peers in the system. We show that the resulting topologies can be much worse than if peers collaborated. Moreover, the network may never stabilize, even in the absence of churn. 1
Network Design with Weighted Players
 In Proceedings of the 18th Annual ACM Symposium on Parallel Algorithms and Architectures (SPAA
, 2006
"... We consider a model of gametheoretic network design initially studied by Anshelevich et al. [2], where selfish players select paths in a network to minimize their cost, which is prescribed by Shapley cost shares. If all players are identical, the cost share incurred by a player for an edge in its p ..."
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Cited by 49 (7 self)
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We consider a model of gametheoretic network design initially studied by Anshelevich et al. [2], where selfish players select paths in a network to minimize their cost, which is prescribed by Shapley cost shares. If all players are identical, the cost share incurred by a player for an edge in its path is the fixed cost of the edge divided by the number of players using it. In this special case, Anshelevich et al. [2] proved that purestrategy Nash equilibria always exist and that the price of stability—the ratio in costs of a minimumcost Nash equilibrium and an optimal solution—is Θ(log k), where k is the number of players. Little was known about the existence of equilibria or the price of stability in the general weighted version of the game. Here, each player i has aweightwi≥1, and its cost share of an edge in its path
Bayesian combinatorial auctions
 Proceedings of the 35th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming (ICALP), I
, 2008
"... Abstract. We study the following Bayesian setting: m items are sold to n sel¯sh bidders in m independent secondprice auctions. Each bidder has a private valuation function that expresses complex preferences over all subsets of items. Bidders only have beliefs about the valuation functions of the o ..."
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Cited by 48 (1 self)
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Abstract. We study the following Bayesian setting: m items are sold to n sel¯sh bidders in m independent secondprice auctions. Each bidder has a private valuation function that expresses complex preferences over all subsets of items. Bidders only have beliefs about the valuation functions of the other bidders, in the form of probability distributions. The objective is to allocate the items to the bidders in a way that provides a good approximation to the optimal social welfare value. We show that if bidders have submodular valuation functions, then every Bayesian Nash equilibrium of the resulting game provides a 2approximation to the optimal social welfare. Moreover, we show that in the fullinformation game a pure Nash always exists and can be found in time that is polynomial in both m and n. 1
Strong equilibrium in cost sharing connection games
 Proc. 8th ACM Conference on Electronic Commerce, 84–92
, 2007
"... In this work we study cost sharing connection games, where each player has a source and sink he would like to connect, and the cost of the edges is either shared equally (fair connection games) or in an arbitrary way (general connection games). We study the graph topologies that guarantee the existe ..."
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Cited by 47 (6 self)
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In this work we study cost sharing connection games, where each player has a source and sink he would like to connect, and the cost of the edges is either shared equally (fair connection games) or in an arbitrary way (general connection games). We study the graph topologies that guarantee the existence of a strong equilibrium (where no coalition can improve the cost of each of its members) regardless of the specific costs on the edges. Our main existence results are the following: (1) For a single source and sink we show that there is always a strong equilibrium (both for fair and general connection games). (2) For a single source multiple sinks we show that for a series parallel graph a strong equilibrium always exists (both for fair and general connection games). (3) For multi source and sink we show that an extension parallel graph always admits a strong equilibrium in fair connection games. As for the quality of the strong equilibrium we show that in any fair connection games the cost of a strong equilibrium is Θ(log n) from the optimal solution, where n is the number of players. (This should be contrasted with the Ω(n) price of anarchy for the same setting.) For single source general connection games and single source single sink fair connection games, we show that a strong equilibrium is always an optimal solution.
Tight bounds for selfish and greedy load balancing
 ICALP 2006. LNCS
, 2006
"... Abstract. We study the load balancing problem in the context of a set of clients each wishing to run a job on a server selected among a subset of permissible servers for the particular client. We consider two different scenarios. In selfish load balancing, each client is selfish in the sense that it ..."
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Cited by 43 (6 self)
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Abstract. We study the load balancing problem in the context of a set of clients each wishing to run a job on a server selected among a subset of permissible servers for the particular client. We consider two different scenarios. In selfish load balancing, each client is selfish in the sense that it selects to run its job to the server among its permissible servers having the smallest latency given the assignments of the jobs of other clients to servers. In online load balancing, clients appear online and, when a client appears, it has to make an irrevocable decision and assign its job to one of its permissible servers. Here, we assume that the clients aim to optimize some global criterion but in an online fashion. A natural local optimization criterion that can be used by each client when making its decision is to assign its job to that server that gives the minimum increase of the global objective. This gives rise to greedy online solutions. The aim of this paper is to determine how much the quality of load balancing is affected by selfishness and greediness. We characterize almost completely the impact of selfishness and greediness in load balancing by presenting new and improved, tight or almost tight bounds on the price of anarchy and price of stability of selfish load balancing as well as on the competitiveness of the greedy algorithm for online load balancing when the objective is to minimize the total latency of all clients on servers with linear latency functions. 1
NonCooperative Multicast and Facility Location Games
"... We consider a multicast game with selfish noncooperative players. There is a special source node and each player is interested in connecting to the source by making a routing decision that minimizes its payment. The mutual influence of the players is determined by a cost sharing mechanism, which in ..."
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Cited by 40 (2 self)
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We consider a multicast game with selfish noncooperative players. There is a special source node and each player is interested in connecting to the source by making a routing decision that minimizes its payment. The mutual influence of the players is determined by a cost sharing mechanism, which in our case evenly splits the cost of an edge among the players using it. We consider two different models: an integral model, where each player connects to the source by choosing a single path, and a fractional model, where a player is allowed to split the flow it receives from the source between several paths. In both models we explore the overhead incurred in network cost due to the selfish behavior of the users, as well as the computational complexity of finding a Nash equilibrium. The existence of a Nash equilibrium for the integral model was previously established by the means of a potential function. We prove that finding a Nash equilibrium that minimizes the potential function is NPhard. We focus on the price of anarchy of a Nash equilibrium resulting from the bestresponse dynamics of a game course, where the players join the game sequentially. For a game with n players, we establish an upper bound of O ( √ n log 2 n) on the price of anarchy, and a lower bound of Ω(log n/log log n). For the fractional model, we prove the existence of a Nash equilibrium via a potential function and give a polynomial time algorithm for computing an equilibrium that minimizes the potential function. Finally, we consider a weighted extension of the multicast game, and prove that in the fractional model, the game always has a Nash equilibrium.
Fast and compact: A simple class of congestion games
 In AAAI
, 2005
"... We study a simple, yet rich subclass of congestion games that we call singleton games. These games are exponentially more compact than general congestion games. In contrast with some other compact subclasses, we show tractability of many natural gametheoretic questions, such as finding a sample or ..."
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Cited by 37 (0 self)
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We study a simple, yet rich subclass of congestion games that we call singleton games. These games are exponentially more compact than general congestion games. In contrast with some other compact subclasses, we show tractability of many natural gametheoretic questions, such as finding a sample or optimal Nash equilibrium. For best and betterresponse dynamics, we establish polynomial upper and lower bounds on the rate of convergence and present experimental results. We also consider a natural generalization of singleton games and show that many tractability results carry over.
On the Value of Coordination in Network Design
"... We study network design games where n selfinterested agents have to form a network by purchasing links from a given set of edges. We consider Shapley cost sharing mechanisms that split the cost of an edge in a fair manner among the agents using the edge. It is well known that the price of anarchy o ..."
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Cited by 36 (0 self)
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We study network design games where n selfinterested agents have to form a network by purchasing links from a given set of edges. We consider Shapley cost sharing mechanisms that split the cost of an edge in a fair manner among the agents using the edge. It is well known that the price of anarchy of these games is as high as n. Therefore, recent research has focused on evaluating the price of stability, i.e. the cost of the best Nash equilibrium relative to the social optimum. In this paper we investigate to which extent coordination among agents can improve the quality of solutions. We resort to the concept of strong Nash equilibria, which were introduced by Aumann and are resilient to deviations by coalitions of agents. We analyze the price of anarchy of strong Nash equilibria and develop lower and upper bounds for unweighted and weighted games in both directed and undirected graphs. These bounds are tight or nearly tight for many scenarios. It shows that using coordination, the price of anarchy drops from linear to logarithmic bounds. We complement these results by also proving the first superconstant lower bound on the price of stability of standard equilibria (without coordination) in undirected graphs. More specifically, we show a lower bound of Ω(log W / log log W) for weighted games, where W is the total weight of all the agents. This almost matches the known upper bound of O(log W). Our results imply that, for most settings, the worstcase performance ratios of strong coordinated equilibria are essentially always as good as the performance ratios of the best equilibria achievable without coordination. These settings include unweighted games in directed graphs as well as weighted games in both directed and undirected graphs.
Strong and Correlated Strong Equilibria in Monotone Congestion Games
 In Proc. of 2nd international Workshop on Internet & Network Economics
, 2006
"... Abstract. The study of congestion games is central to the interplay between computer science and game theory. However, most work in this context does not deal with possible deviations by coalitions of players, a significant issue one may wish to consider. In order to deal with this issue we study th ..."
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Cited by 34 (1 self)
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Abstract. The study of congestion games is central to the interplay between computer science and game theory. However, most work in this context does not deal with possible deviations by coalitions of players, a significant issue one may wish to consider. In order to deal with this issue we study the existence of strong and correlated strong equilibria in monotone congestion games. Our study of strong equilibrium deals with monotoneincreasing congestion games, complementing the results obtained by Holzman and LawYone on monotonedecreasing congestion games. We then present a study of correlatedstrong equilibrium for both decreasing and increasing monotone congestion games. Keywords: Congestion Games, Strong Equilibrium. 1 Introduction and overview of results A congestion game (Rosenthal, [7]) is defined as follows: A finite set of players1, N = {1,..., n}; A finite nonempty set of facilities, M; For each player i ∈ N a nonempty set Ai ⊆ 2M, which is the set of actions available to player i (an action is a subset
On the price of stability for designing undirected networks with fair cost allocations
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE 33RD ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL COLLOQUIUM ON AUTOMATA, LANGUAGES, AND PROGRAMMING (ICALP
, 2006
"... In this paper we address the open problem of bounding the price of stability for network design with fair cost allocation for undirected graphs posed in [1]. We consider the case where there is an agent in every vertex. We show that the price of stability is O(log log n). We prove this by defining a ..."
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Cited by 34 (1 self)
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In this paper we address the open problem of bounding the price of stability for network design with fair cost allocation for undirected graphs posed in [1]. We consider the case where there is an agent in every vertex. We show that the price of stability is O(log log n). We prove this by defining a particular improving dynamics in a related graph. This proof technique may have other applications and is of independent interest.