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141
Time varying structural vector autoregressions and monetary policy
 REVIEW OF ECONOMIC STUDIES
, 2005
"... Monetary policy and the private sector behavior of the US economy are modeled as a time varying structural vector autoregression, where the sources of time variation are both the coefficients and the variance covariance matrix of the innovations. The paper develops a new, simple modeling strategy f ..."
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Cited by 306 (8 self)
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Monetary policy and the private sector behavior of the US economy are modeled as a time varying structural vector autoregression, where the sources of time variation are both the coefficients and the variance covariance matrix of the innovations. The paper develops a new, simple modeling strategy for the law of motion of the variance covariance matrix and proposes an efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm for the model likelihood/posterior numerical evaluation. The main empirical conclusions are: 1) both systematic and nonsystematic monetary policy have changed during the last forty years. In particular, systematic responses of the interest rate to inflation and unemployment exhibit a trend toward a more aggressive behavior, despite remarkable oscillations; 2) this has had a negligible effect on the rest of the economy. The role played by exogenous nonpolicy shocks seems more important than interest rate policy in explaining the high inflation and unemployment episodes in recent US economic history.
Can Financial Innovation Help to Explain the Reduced Volatility of Economic Activity
 Journal of Monetary Economics
, 2006
"... are preliminary materials circulated to stimulate discussion and critical comment. The analysis and conclusions set forth are those of the authors and do not indicate concurrence by other members of the research staff or the Board of Governors. References in publications to the Finance and Economics ..."
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Cited by 89 (6 self)
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are preliminary materials circulated to stimulate discussion and critical comment. The analysis and conclusions set forth are those of the authors and do not indicate concurrence by other members of the research staff or the Board of Governors. References in publications to the Finance and Economics Discussion Series (other than acknowledgement) should be cleared with the author(s) to protect the tentative character of these papers.
New Keynesian macroeconomics and the term structure
 OF MONEY, CREDIT, AND BANKING
, 2004
"... This article complements the structural NewKeynesian macro framework with a noarbitrage term structure model. Whereas our methodology is general, we focus on an extended macromodel with an unobservable timevarying markup and stochastic risk aversion. Term structure information helps to identify ..."
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Cited by 82 (9 self)
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This article complements the structural NewKeynesian macro framework with a noarbitrage term structure model. Whereas our methodology is general, we focus on an extended macromodel with an unobservable timevarying markup and stochastic risk aversion. Term structure information helps to identify the dynamics of the observed and unobserved variables and the structural parameters. Moreover, the model yields a tractable linear system estimable by maximum likelihood or GMM. Whereas the VAR representation is simple when including term structure information, the reducedform model for the observed macro variables is more complex. Relative to the term structure literature, we create an affine term structure model where all factors have an economic meaning and obey NewKeynesian structural relations. Our estimates yield a large Phillips curve parameter and a sensible curvature parameter for the utility function, making monetary policy quite effective. In the term structure, observable macro factors explain more of the variation of long yields compared with short yields. The unobservable factors contribute primarily to the dynamics of the slope and curvature factors in the term structure.
2009): “On the Sources of the Great Moderation
 American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics
"... The Great Moderation in the US economy has been accompanied by large changes in the comovements among output, hours, and labor productivity. Those changes are reflected in both conditional and unconditional second moments as well as in the impulse responses to identified shocks. Among other changes, ..."
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Cited by 75 (1 self)
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The Great Moderation in the US economy has been accompanied by large changes in the comovements among output, hours, and labor productivity. Those changes are reflected in both conditional and unconditional second moments as well as in the impulse responses to identified shocks. Among other changes, our findings point to an increase in the volatility of hours relative to output, a shrinking contribution of nontechnology shocks to output volatility, and a change in the cyclical response of labor productivity to those shocks. That evidence suggests a more complex picture than that associated with “good luck ” explanations of the Great Moderation. (JEL: E23, E24, J22, J24) large body of empirical research has provided evidence of a substantial decline A in the volatility of most US macroeconomic time series over the postwar period. That phenomenon, which has also been experienced by other industrialized economies, has come to be known as the “Great Moderation. ” 1
Bayesian Multivariate Time Series Methods for Empirical Macroeconomics
, 2009
"... Macroeconomic practitioners frequently work with multivariate time series models such as VARs, factor augmented VARs as well as timevarying parameter versions of these models (including variants with multivariate stochastic volatility). These models have a large number of parameters and, thus, over ..."
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Cited by 56 (12 self)
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Macroeconomic practitioners frequently work with multivariate time series models such as VARs, factor augmented VARs as well as timevarying parameter versions of these models (including variants with multivariate stochastic volatility). These models have a large number of parameters and, thus, overparameterization problems may arise. Bayesian methods have become increasingly popular as a way of overcoming these problems. In this monograph, we discuss VARs, factor augmented VARs and timevarying parameter extensions and show how Bayesian inference proceeds. Apart from the simplest of VARs, Bayesian inference requires the use of Markov chain Monte Carlo methods developed for state space models and we describe these algorithms. The focus is on the empirical macroeconomist and we offer advice on how to use these models and methods in practice and include empirical illustrations. A website provides Matlab code for carrying out Bayesian inference in these models.
Monetary Policy, Trend Inflation and the Great Moderation: An Alternative Interpretation.” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 14621
, 2008
"... Abstract: With positive trend inflation, the Taylor principle does not guarantee a determinate equilibrium. We provide new theoretical results on determinacy in New Keynesian models with positive trend inflation and new empirical findings on the Federal Reserve’s reaction function before and after t ..."
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Cited by 44 (11 self)
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Abstract: With positive trend inflation, the Taylor principle does not guarantee a determinate equilibrium. We provide new theoretical results on determinacy in New Keynesian models with positive trend inflation and new empirical findings on the Federal Reserve’s reaction function before and after the Volcker disinflation to find that 1) while the Fed likely satisfied the Taylor principle before Volcker, the US economy was still subject to selffulfilling fluctuations in the 1970s, 2) the US economy switched to determinacy during the Volcker disinflation, and 3) the switch reflected changes in the Fed’s response to macroeconomic variables and the decline in trend inflation.
Likelihoodbased analysis for dynamic factor models
, 2008
"... We present new results for the likelihoodbased analysis of the dynamic factor model that possibly includes intercepts and explanatory variables. The latent factors are modeled by stochastic processes. The idiosyncratic disturbances are specified as autoregressive processes with mutually correlated ..."
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Cited by 38 (7 self)
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We present new results for the likelihoodbased analysis of the dynamic factor model that possibly includes intercepts and explanatory variables. The latent factors are modeled by stochastic processes. The idiosyncratic disturbances are specified as autoregressive processes with mutually correlated innovations. The new results lead to computationally efficient procedures for the estimation of the factors and parameter estimation by (quasi)maximum likelihood. An illustration is provided for the analysis of a large panel of macroeconomic time series
Fortune or Virtue: TimeVariant Volatilities Versus Parameter Drifting in U.S. Data ∗
, 2010
"... participants at several seminars for useful comments, and Béla Személy for invaluable research assistance. Beyond the usual disclaimer, we must note that any views expressed herein are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, the Federal Reserve Bank of ..."
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Cited by 29 (7 self)
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participants at several seminars for useful comments, and Béla Személy for invaluable research assistance. Beyond the usual disclaimer, we must note that any views expressed herein are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, or the Federal Reserve System. Finally, we also thank the NSF for financial support.
Inflationgap persistence in the U.S
 American Economic Journal Macroeconomics
, 2010
"... We use Bayesian methods to estimate two models of post WWII U.S. inflation rates with drifting stochastic volatility and drifting coefficients. One model is univariate, the other a multivariate autoregression. We define the inflation gap as the deviation of inflation from a pure random walk componen ..."
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Cited by 25 (0 self)
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We use Bayesian methods to estimate two models of post WWII U.S. inflation rates with drifting stochastic volatility and drifting coefficients. One model is univariate, the other a multivariate autoregression. We define the inflation gap as the deviation of inflation from a pure random walk component of inflation and use both models to study changes over time in the persistence of the inflation gap measured in terms of short to mediumterm predicability. We present evidence that our measure of the inflationgap persistence increased until Volcker brought mean inflation down in the early 1980s and that it then fell during the chairmanships of Volcker and Greenspan. Stronger evidence for movements in inflation gap persistence emerges from the VAR than from the univariate model. We interpret these changes in terms of a simple dynamic new Keynesian model that allows us to distinguish altered monetary policy rules and altered private sector parameters. 1