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297
The Integration of Functions into Logic Programming: From Theory to Practice
 Journal of Logic Programming
, 1994
"... Abstract. Functional logic programming languages combine the most important declarative programming paradigms, and attempts to combine these paradigms have a long history. The declarative multiparadigm language Curry is influenced by recent advances in the foundations and implementation of function ..."
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Cited by 356 (59 self)
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Abstract. Functional logic programming languages combine the most important declarative programming paradigms, and attempts to combine these paradigms have a long history. The declarative multiparadigm language Curry is influenced by recent advances in the foundations and implementation of functional logic languages. The development of Curry is an international initiative intended to provide a common platform for the research, teaching, and application of integrated functional logic languages. This paper surveys the foundations of functional logic programming that are relevant for Curry, the main features of Curry, and extensions and applications of Curry and functional logic programming. 1
A unified computation model for functional and logic programming
 IN PROC. OF THE 24TH ACM SYMPOSIUM ON PRINCIPLES OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES (PARIS
, 1997
"... We propose a new computation model which combines the operational principles of functional languages (reduction), logic languages (nondeterministic search for solutions), and integrated functional logic languages (residuation and narrowing). This computation model combines efficient evaluation prin ..."
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Cited by 143 (71 self)
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We propose a new computation model which combines the operational principles of functional languages (reduction), logic languages (nondeterministic search for solutions), and integrated functional logic languages (residuation and narrowing). This computation model combines efficient evaluation principles of functional languages with the problemsolving capabilities of logic programming. Since the model allows the delay of function calls which are not sufficiently instantiated, it also supports a concurrent style of programming. We provide soundness and completeness results and show that known evaluation principles of functional logic languages are particular instances of this model. Thus, our model is a suitable basis for future declarative programming languages.
Higherorder narrowing with definitional trees
 Neural Computation
, 1996
"... Functional logic languages with a sound and complete operational semantics are mainly based on narrowing. Due to the huge search space of simple narrowing, steadily improved narrowing strategies have been developed in the past. Needed narrowing is currently the best narrowing strategy for firstord ..."
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Cited by 78 (23 self)
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Functional logic languages with a sound and complete operational semantics are mainly based on narrowing. Due to the huge search space of simple narrowing, steadily improved narrowing strategies have been developed in the past. Needed narrowing is currently the best narrowing strategy for firstorder functional logic programs due to its optimality properties w.r.t. the length of derivations and the number of computed solutions. In this paper, we extend the needed narrowing strategy to higherorder functions and λterms as data structures. By the use of definitional trees, our strategy computes only incomparable solutions. Thus, it is the first calculus for higherorder functional logic programming which provides for such an optimality result. Since we allow higherorder logical variables denoting λterms, applications go beyond current functional and logic programming languages.
Operational Semantics for Declarative MultiParadigm Languages
 Journal of Symbolic Computation
, 2005
"... Abstract. In this paper we define an operational semantics for functional logic languages covering notions like laziness, sharing, concurrency, nondeterminism, etc. Such a semantics is not only important to provide appropriate language definitions to reason about programs and check the correctness ..."
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Cited by 67 (29 self)
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Abstract. In this paper we define an operational semantics for functional logic languages covering notions like laziness, sharing, concurrency, nondeterminism, etc. Such a semantics is not only important to provide appropriate language definitions to reason about programs and check the correctness of implementations but it is also a basis to develop languagespecific tools, like program tracers, profilers, optimizers, etc. First, we define a &quot;bigstep &quot; semantics in natural style to relate expressions and their evaluated results. Since this semantics is not sufficient to cover concurrency, search strategies, or to reason about costs associated to particular computations, we also define a &quot;smallstep &quot; operational semantics covering the features of modern functional logic languages.
Optimal NonDeterministic Functional Logic Computations
 In Proc. International Conference on Algebraic and Logic Programming (ALP’97
, 1298
"... Abstract. We show that nondeterminism simplifies coding certain problems into programs. We define a nonconfluent, but wellbehaved class of rewrite systems for supporting nondeterministic computations in functional logic programming. We show the benefits of using this class on a few examples. We ..."
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Cited by 64 (32 self)
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Abstract. We show that nondeterminism simplifies coding certain problems into programs. We define a nonconfluent, but wellbehaved class of rewrite systems for supporting nondeterministic computations in functional logic programming. We show the benefits of using this class on a few examples. We define a narrowing strategy for this class of systems and prove that our strategy is sound, complete, and optimal, modulo nondeterministic choices, for appropriate definitions of these concepts. We compare our strategy with related work and show that our overall approach is fully compatible with the current proposal of a universal, broadbased functional logic language. 1
Curry: A Truly Functional Logic Language
, 1995
"... Functional and logic programming are the most important declarative programming paradigms, and interest in combining them has grown over the last decade. However, integrated functional logic languages are currently not widely used. This is due to the fact that the operational principles are not w ..."
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Cited by 56 (6 self)
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Functional and logic programming are the most important declarative programming paradigms, and interest in combining them has grown over the last decade. However, integrated functional logic languages are currently not widely used. This is due to the fact that the operational principles are not well understood and many different evaluation strategies have been proposed which resulted in many different functional logic languages. To overcome this situation, we propose the functional logic language Curry which can deal as a standard language in this area. It includes important ideas of existing functional logic languages and recent developments, and combines the most important features of functional and logic languages. Thus, Curry can be the basis to combine the currently separated research efforts of the functional and logic programming communities and to boost declarative programming in general. Moreover, since functions provide for more efficient evaluation strategies and ...
Constructorbased Conditional Narrowing
 In Proc. of the 3rd International ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Principles and Practice of Declarative Programming (PPDP 2001
, 2001
"... We define a transformation from a leftlinear constructorbased conditional rewrite system into an overlapping inductively sequential rewrite system. This transformation is sound and complete for the computations in the source system. Since there exists a sound and complete narrowing strategy for t ..."
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Cited by 55 (22 self)
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We define a transformation from a leftlinear constructorbased conditional rewrite system into an overlapping inductively sequential rewrite system. This transformation is sound and complete for the computations in the source system. Since there exists a sound and complete narrowing strategy for the target system, the combination of these results offers the first procedure for provably sound and complete narrowing computations for the whole class of the leftlinear constructorbased conditional rewrite systems. We address the differences between demand driven and lazy strategies and between narrowing strategies and narrowing calculi. In this context, we analyze the efficiency and practicality of using our transformation for the implementation of functional logic programming languages. The results of this paper complement, extend, and occasionally rectify, previously published results in this area. Categories and Subject Descriptors D.1.1 [Programming Techniques]: Applicative (Functional) Programming; D.1.6 [Programming Techniques]: Logic Programming; D.3.3 [Programming Languages]: Language Constructs and FeaturesControl structures; D.3.4 [Programming Languages ]: ProcessorsOptimization; F.4.2 [Mathematical Logic and Formal Languages]: Grammars and Other Rewriting Systems; I.1.1 [Algebraic Manipulation]: Expressions and Their Representation Simplification of expressions; I.2.2 [Automatic Programming ]: Program transformation General Terms Algorithms, Languages, Performance, Theory Keywords Functional Logic Programming Languages, Rewrite Systems, Narrowing Strategies, CallByNeed This work has been supported in part by the National Science Foundation grant INT9981317. 1.
Compiling MultiParadigm Declarative Programs into Prolog
 In Proc. International Workshop on Frontiers of Combining Systems (FroCoS’2000
, 2000
"... This paper describes a highlevel implementation of the concurrent constraint functional logic language Curry. The implementation, directed by the lazy pattern matching strategy of Curry, is obtained by transforming Curry programs into Prolog programs. Contrary to previous transformations of functio ..."
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Cited by 55 (34 self)
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This paper describes a highlevel implementation of the concurrent constraint functional logic language Curry. The implementation, directed by the lazy pattern matching strategy of Curry, is obtained by transforming Curry programs into Prolog programs. Contrary to previous transformations of functional logic programs into Prolog, our implementation includes new mechanisms for both efficiently performing concurrent evaluation steps and sharing common subterms. The practical results show that our implementation is superior to previously proposed similar implementations of functional logic languages in Prolog and is competitive w.r.t. lowerlevel implementations of Curry in other target languages. An noteworthy advantage of our implementation is the ability to immediately employ in Curry existing constraint solvers for logic programming. In this way, we obtain with a relatively modest effort the implementation of a declarative language combining lazy evaluation, concurrency a...
Server Side Web Scripting in Curry
 IN PROC. OF THE THIRD INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF DECLARATIVE LANGUAGES (PADL’01
, 2000
"... In this paper we propose a new approach to implement web services based on the Common Gateway Interface (CGI). Since we use the multiparadigm declarative language Curry as an implementation language, many of the drawbacks and pitfalls of traditional CGI programming can be avoided. For instance, ..."
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Cited by 52 (27 self)
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In this paper we propose a new approach to implement web services based on the Common Gateway Interface (CGI). Since we use the multiparadigm declarative language Curry as an implementation language, many of the drawbacks and pitfalls of traditional CGI programming can be avoided. For instance, the syntactical details of HTML and passing values with CGI are hidden by a wrapper that executes abstract HTML forms by translating them into concrete HTML code. This leads to a highlevel approach to server side web service programming where notions like event handlers, state variables and control of interactions are available. Thanks to the use of a functional logic language, we can structure our approach as an embedded domain specic language where the functional and logic programming features of the host language are exploited to abstract from details and frequent errors in standard CGI programming.
Multiparadigm Declarative Languages
 In Proceedings of the International Conference on Logic Programming (ICLP 2007
, 2007
"... Abstract. Declarative programming languages advocate a programming style expressing the properties of problems and their solutions rather than how to compute individual solutions. Depending on the underlying formalism to express such properties, one can distinguish different classes of declarative l ..."
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Cited by 51 (18 self)
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Abstract. Declarative programming languages advocate a programming style expressing the properties of problems and their solutions rather than how to compute individual solutions. Depending on the underlying formalism to express such properties, one can distinguish different classes of declarative languages, like functional, logic, or constraint programming languages. This paper surveys approaches to combine these different classes into a single programming language. 1