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How to read floating point numbers accurately
 Proceedings of PLDI ’90
, 1990
"... Converting decimal scientific notation into binary floating point is nontrivial, but this conversion can be performed with the best possible accuracy without sacrificing efficiency. 1. ..."
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Converting decimal scientific notation into binary floating point is nontrivial, but this conversion can be performed with the best possible accuracy without sacrificing efficiency. 1.
25 years of TEX and METAFONT: Looking back and looking forward: TUG 2003 keynote address
 TUGBOAT
, 2004
"... TEX has lasted longer than many other computer software technologies. This article reviews some of the history of TEX and METAFONT, how they have come to be used in practice, and what their impact has been on document markup, the Internet, and publishing. TEX has several design deficiencies that lim ..."
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TEX has lasted longer than many other computer software technologies. This article reviews some of the history of TEX and METAFONT, how they have come to be used in practice, and what their impact has been on document markup, the Internet, and publishing. TEX has several design deficiencies that limit its use and its audience. We look at what TEX did right, and with 25 years of hindsight, what it did wrong. We close with some observations about the challenges ahead for electronic representation of documents.
Cleaning up the tower: Numbers in Scheme
 Indiana University
, 2004
"... The R 5 RS specification of numerical operations leads to unportable and intransparent behavior of programs. Specifically, the notion of “exact/inexact numbers ” and the misleading distinction between “real ” and “rational ” numbers are two primary sources of confusion. Consequently, the way R 5 RS ..."
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The R 5 RS specification of numerical operations leads to unportable and intransparent behavior of programs. Specifically, the notion of “exact/inexact numbers ” and the misleading distinction between “real ” and “rational ” numbers are two primary sources of confusion. Consequently, the way R 5 RS organizes numbers is significantly less useful than it could be. Based on this diagnosis, we propose to abandon the concept of exact/inexact numbers from Scheme altogether. In this paper, we examine designs in which exact and inexact rounding operations are explicitly separated, while there is no distinction between exact and inexact numbers. Through examining alternatives and practical ramifications, we arrive at an alternative proposal for the design of the numerical operations in Scheme. 1
Implementing Decimal FloatingPoint Arithmetic through Binary: some Suggestions
"... Abstract—We propose algorithms and provide some related results that make it possible to implement decimal floatingpoint arithmetic on a processor that does not have decimal operators, using the available binary floatingpoint functions. In this preliminary study, we focus on roundtonearest mode o ..."
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Abstract—We propose algorithms and provide some related results that make it possible to implement decimal floatingpoint arithmetic on a processor that does not have decimal operators, using the available binary floatingpoint functions. In this preliminary study, we focus on roundtonearest mode only. We show that several functions in decimal32 and decimal64 arithmetic can be implemented using binary64 and binary128 floatingpoint arithmetic, respectively. We discuss the decimal square root and some transcendental functions. We also consider radix conversion algorithms. Keywordsdecimal floatingpoint arithmetic; square root; transcendental functions; radix conversion. I.
Revised Report on the Algorithmic Language Scheme
, 2009
"... Programming languages should be designed not by piling feature on top of feature, but by removing the weaknesses and restrictions that make additional features appear necessary. Scheme demonstrates that a very small number of rules for forming expressions, with no restrictions on how they are compos ..."
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Programming languages should be designed not by piling feature on top of feature, but by removing the weaknesses and restrictions that make additional features appear necessary. Scheme demonstrates that a very small number of rules for forming expressions, with no restrictions on how they are composed, suffice to form a practical and efficient programming language that is flexible enough to support most of the major programming paradigms in use today. Scheme was one of the first programming languages to incorporate firstclass procedures as in the lambda calculus, thereby proving the usefulness of static scope rules and block structure in a dynamically typed language. Scheme was the first major dialect of Lisp to distinguish procedures from lambda expressions and symbols, to use a single lexical environment for all variables, and to evaluate the operator position of a procedure call in the same way as an operand position. By relying entirely on procedure calls to express iteration, Scheme emphasized the fact that tailrecursive procedure calls are essentially gotos that pass arguments. Scheme was the first widely used programming language to embrace firstclass
Performance Evaluation of Decimal FloatingPoint Arithmetic
"... The prominence of decimal data in commercial and financial applications has led researchers to pursue efficient techniques for performing decimal floatingpoint arithmetic. While several software implementations of decimal floatingpoint arithmetic have been implemented, there is a growing need to p ..."
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The prominence of decimal data in commercial and financial applications has led researchers to pursue efficient techniques for performing decimal floatingpoint arithmetic. While several software implementations of decimal floatingpoint arithmetic have been implemented, there is a growing need to provide hardware support for decimal floatingpoint arithmetic to keep up with the processing demands of emerging commercial and financial applications. This paper evaluates and compares the performance of decimal floatingpoint arithmetic operations when implemented on superscalar processors using either software libraries or specialized hardware designs. Our comparisons show that hardware implementations of decimal floatingpoint arithmetic operations are one to two orders of magnitude faster than software implementations. 1.
Olin Shivers and Oscar Waddell, editors Sponsored by the Association for Computing Machinery’s Special Interest Group on Programming Languages (ACM/SIGPLAN) Preface
, 2004
"... This report contains the papers presented at the Fifth Workshop on Scheme and ..."
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This report contains the papers presented at the Fifth Workshop on Scheme and
Acknowledgements
, 2003
"... We argue that evolution will tend to erode vengefulness as a preference trait, due to the costs associated with its exercise. We identify two problems: threshold and mimicry. The first asks how vengeance can evolve from low values where it has a negative fitness gradient. The second asks why cheap i ..."
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We argue that evolution will tend to erode vengefulness as a preference trait, due to the costs associated with its exercise. We identify two problems: threshold and mimicry. The first asks how vengeance can evolve from low values where it has a negative fitness gradient. The second asks why cheap imitators do not evolve who look like highly vengeful types but do not bear the costs of actually wreaking vengeance. We discuss how these problems may be overcome in small group interactions where encounters with outsiders are also important. We analyze the role of withingroup social norms in overcoming these evolutionary problems.