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409
Tensor Decompositions and Applications
 SIAM REVIEW
, 2009
"... This survey provides an overview of higherorder tensor decompositions, their applications, and available software. A tensor is a multidimensional or N way array. Decompositions of higherorder tensors (i.e., N way arrays with N â¥ 3) have applications in psychometrics, chemometrics, signal proce ..."
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Cited by 705 (17 self)
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This survey provides an overview of higherorder tensor decompositions, their applications, and available software. A tensor is a multidimensional or N way array. Decompositions of higherorder tensors (i.e., N way arrays with N â¥ 3) have applications in psychometrics, chemometrics, signal processing, numerical linear algebra, computer vision, numerical analysis, data mining, neuroscience, graph analysis, etc. Two particular tensor decompositions can be considered to be higherorder extensions of the matrix singular value decompo
sition: CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) decomposes a tensor as a sum of rankone tensors, and the Tucker decomposition is a higherorder form of principal components analysis. There are many other tensor decompositions, including INDSCAL, PARAFAC2, CANDELINC, DEDICOM, and PARATUCK2 as well as nonnegative variants of all of the above. The Nway Toolbox and Tensor Toolbox, both for MATLAB, and the Multilinear Engine are examples of software packages for working with tensors.
A multilinear singular value decomposition
 SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl
, 2000
"... Abstract. We discuss a multilinear generalization of the singular value decomposition. There is a strong analogy between several properties of the matrix and the higherorder tensor decomposition; uniqueness, link with the matrix eigenvalue decomposition, firstorder perturbation effects, etc., are ..."
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Cited by 467 (20 self)
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Abstract. We discuss a multilinear generalization of the singular value decomposition. There is a strong analogy between several properties of the matrix and the higherorder tensor decomposition; uniqueness, link with the matrix eigenvalue decomposition, firstorder perturbation effects, etc., are analyzed. We investigate how tensor symmetries affect the decomposition and propose a multilinear generalization of the symmetric eigenvalue decomposition for pairwise symmetric tensors.
From frequency to meaning : Vector space models of semantics
 Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
, 2010
"... Computers understand very little of the meaning of human language. This profoundly limits our ability to give instructions to computers, the ability of computers to explain their actions to us, and the ability of computers to analyse and process text. Vector space models (VSMs) of semantics are begi ..."
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Cited by 322 (3 self)
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Computers understand very little of the meaning of human language. This profoundly limits our ability to give instructions to computers, the ability of computers to explain their actions to us, and the ability of computers to analyse and process text. Vector space models (VSMs) of semantics are beginning to address these limits. This paper surveys the use of VSMs for semantic processing of text. We organize the literature on VSMs according to the structure of the matrix in a VSM. There are currently three broad classes of VSMs, based on term–document, word–context, and pair–pattern matrices, yielding three classes of applications. We survey a broad range of applications in these three categories and we take a detailed look at a specific open source project in each category. Our goal in this survey is to show the breadth of applications of VSMs for semantics, to provide a new perspective on VSMs for those who are already familiar with the area, and to provide pointers into the literature for those who are less familiar with the field. 1.
Multilinear Analysis of Image Ensembles: TensorFaces
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER VISION
, 2002
"... Natural images are the composite consequence of multiple factors related to scene structure, illumination, and imaging. Multilinear algebra, the algebra of higherorder tensors, offers a potent mathematical framework for analyzing the multifactor structure of image ensembles and for addressing the d ..."
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Cited by 188 (7 self)
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Natural images are the composite consequence of multiple factors related to scene structure, illumination, and imaging. Multilinear algebra, the algebra of higherorder tensors, offers a potent mathematical framework for analyzing the multifactor structure of image ensembles and for addressing the difficult problem of disentangling the constituent factors or modes. Our multilinear modeling technique employs a tensor extension of the conventional matrix singular value decomposition (SVD), known as the Nmode SVD.As a concrete example, we consider the multilinear analysis of ensembles of facial images that combine several modes, including different facial geometries (people), expressions, head poses, and lighting conditions. Our resulting "TensorFaces" representation has several advantages over conventional eigenfaces. More generally, multilinear analysis shows promise as a unifying framework for a variety of computer vision problems.
Face Transfer with Multilinear Models
 TO APPEAR IN SIGGRAPH 2005
, 2005
"... Face Transfer is a method for mapping videorecorded performances of one individual to facial animations of another. It extracts visemes (speechrelated mouth articulations), expressions, and threedimensional (3D) pose from monocular video or film footage. These parameters are then used to generate ..."
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Cited by 144 (3 self)
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Face Transfer is a method for mapping videorecorded performances of one individual to facial animations of another. It extracts visemes (speechrelated mouth articulations), expressions, and threedimensional (3D) pose from monocular video or film footage. These parameters are then used to generate and drive a detailed 3D textured face mesh for a target identity, which can be seamlessly rendered back into target footage. The underlying face model automatically adjusts for how the target performs facial expressions and visemes. The performance data can be easily edited to change the visemes, expressions, pose, or even the identity of the target—the attributes are separably controllable. This supports
Blind PARAFAC receivers for DSCDMA systems
 IEEE TRANS. SIGNAL PROCESSING
, 2000
"... This paper links the directsequence codedivision multiple access (DSCDMA) multiuser separationequalizationdetection problem to the parallel factor (PARAFAC) model, which is an analysis tool rooted in psychometrics and chemometrics. Exploiting this link, it derives a deterministic blind PARAFAC ..."
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Cited by 129 (20 self)
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This paper links the directsequence codedivision multiple access (DSCDMA) multiuser separationequalizationdetection problem to the parallel factor (PARAFAC) model, which is an analysis tool rooted in psychometrics and chemometrics. Exploiting this link, it derives a deterministic blind PARAFAC DSCDMA receiver with performance close to nonblind minimum meansquared error (MMSE). The proposed PARAFAC receiver capitalizes on code, spatial, and temporal diversitycombining, thereby supporting small sample sizes, more users than sensors, and/or less spreading than users. Interestingly, PARAFAC does not require knowledge of spreading codes, the specifics of multipath (interchip interference), DOAcalibration information, finite alphabet/constant modulus, or statistical independence/whiteness to recover the informationbearing signals. Instead, PARAFAC relies on a fundamental result regarding the uniqueness of lowrank threeway array decomposition due to Kruskal (and generalized herein to the complexvalued case) that guarantees identifiability of all relevant signals and propagation parameters. These and other issues are also demonstrated in pertinent simulation experiments.
Principal component analysis of threemode data by means of alternating least squares algorithms
 Springer Complete Collection
, 1980
"... A new method to estimate the parameters of Tucker's threemode principal component model is discussed, and the convergence properties of the alternating least squares algorithm to solve the estimation problem are considered. A special case ofthe general Tucker model, in which the principal comp ..."
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Cited by 129 (5 self)
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A new method to estimate the parameters of Tucker's threemode principal component model is discussed, and the convergence properties of the alternating least squares algorithm to solve the estimation problem are considered. A special case ofthe general Tucker model, in which the principal component analysis is only performed over two of the three modes is briefly outlined as well. The Miller & Nicely data on the confusion of English consonants are used to illustrate the programs TUCKALS3 and TUCKALS2 which incorporate the algorithms for the two models described. Key words: threemode principal component analysis, alternating least squares, factor analysis, multidimensional scaling, individual differences scaling, simultaneous iteration, confusion of consonants. 1. ThreeMode Models and Their Solutions The threemode modelhere r ferred to as the Tucker3 modelwas first formulated by Tucker [1963], and subsequently extended in articles by Tucker [1964, 1966], and Levin [1963, Note 5] especially with respect to the mathematical description and program
Orthogonal Tensor Decompositions
 SIAM JOURNAL ON MATRIX ANALYSIS AND APPLICATIONS
, 2001
"... We explore the orthogonal decomposition of tensors (also known as multidimensional arrays or nway arrays) using two different definitions of orthogonality. We present numerous examples to illustrate the difficulties in understanding such decompositions. We conclude with a counterexample to a tensor ..."
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Cited by 122 (9 self)
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We explore the orthogonal decomposition of tensors (also known as multidimensional arrays or nway arrays) using two different definitions of orthogonality. We present numerous examples to illustrate the difficulties in understanding such decompositions. We conclude with a counterexample to a tensor extension of the EckartYoung SVD approximation theorem by Leibovici and Sabatier [Linear Algebra Appl., 269 (1998), pp. 307329].
Multilinear Subspace Analysis of Image Ensembles
 PROCEEDINGS OF 2003 IEEE COMPUTER SOCIETY CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER VISION AND PATTERN RECOGNITION
, 2003
"... Multilinear algebra, the algebra of higherorder tensors, offers a potent mathematical framework for analyzing ensembles of images resulting from the interaction of any number of underlying factors. We present a dimensionality reduction algorithm that enables subspace analysis within the multilinear ..."
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Cited by 117 (2 self)
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Multilinear algebra, the algebra of higherorder tensors, offers a potent mathematical framework for analyzing ensembles of images resulting from the interaction of any number of underlying factors. We present a dimensionality reduction algorithm that enables subspace analysis within the multilinear framework. This Nmode orthogonal iteration algorithm is based on a tensor decomposition known as the Nmode SVD, the natural extension to tensors of the conventional matrix singular value decomposition (SVD). We demonstrate the power of multilinear subspace analysis in the context of facial image ensembles, where the relevant factors include different faces, expressions, viewpoints, and illuminations. In prior work we showed that our multilinear representation, called TensorFaces, yields superior facial recognition rates relative to standard, linear (PCA/eigenfaces) approaches. Here, we demonstrate factorspecific dimensionality reduction of facial image ensembles. For example, we can suppress illumination effects (shadows, highlights) while preserving detailed facial features, yielding a low perceptual error.
Beyond streams and graphs: Dynamic tensor analysis
 In KDD
, 2006
"... How do we find patterns in authorkeyword associations, evolving over time? Or in DataCubes, with productbranchcustomer sales information? Matrix decompositions, like principal component analysis (PCA) and variants, are invaluable tools for mining, dimensionality reduction, feature selection, rule ..."
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Cited by 111 (16 self)
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How do we find patterns in authorkeyword associations, evolving over time? Or in DataCubes, with productbranchcustomer sales information? Matrix decompositions, like principal component analysis (PCA) and variants, are invaluable tools for mining, dimensionality reduction, feature selection, rule identification in numerous settings like streaming data, text, graphs, social networks and many more. However, they have only two orders, like author and keyword, in the above example. We propose to envision such higher order data as tensors, and tap the vast literature on the topic. However, these methods do not necessarily scale up, let alone operate on semiinfinite streams. Thus, we introduce the dynamic tensor analysis (DTA) method, and its variants. DTA provides a compact summary for highorder and highdimensional data, and it also reveals the hidden correlations. Algorithmically, we designed DTA very carefully so that it is (a) scalable, (b) space efficient (it does not need to store the past) and (c) fully automatic with no need for user defined parameters. Moreover, we propose STA, a streaming tensor analysis method, which provides a fast, streaming approximation to DTA. We implemented all our methods, and applied them in two real settings, namely, anomaly detection and multiway latent semantic indexing. We used two real, large datasets, one on network flow data (100GB over 1 month) and one from DBLP (200MB over 25 years). Our experiments show that our methods are fast, accurate and that they find interesting patterns and outliers on the real datasets. 1.