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Image retrieval: ideas, influences, and trends of the new age
 ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 2008
"... We have witnessed great interest and a wealth of promise in contentbased image retrieval as an emerging technology. While the last decade laid foundation to such promise, it also paved the way for a large number of new techniques and systems, got many new people involved, and triggered stronger ass ..."
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Cited by 485 (13 self)
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We have witnessed great interest and a wealth of promise in contentbased image retrieval as an emerging technology. While the last decade laid foundation to such promise, it also paved the way for a large number of new techniques and systems, got many new people involved, and triggered stronger association of weakly related fields. In this article, we survey almost 300 key theoretical and empirical contributions in the current decade related to image retrieval and automatic image annotation, and in the process discuss the spawning of related subfields. We also discuss significant challenges involved in the adaptation of existing image retrieval techniques to build systems that can be useful in the real world. In retrospect of what has been achieved so far, we also conjecture what the future may hold for image retrieval research.
Shape Descriptors for Nonrigid Shapes with a Single Closed Contour
 Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
, 2000
"... The Core Experiment CEShape1 for shape descriptors performed for the MPEG7 standard gave a unique opportunity to compare various shape descriptors for nonrigid shapes with a single closed contour. There are two main differences with respect to other comparison results reported in the literature: ..."
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Cited by 185 (19 self)
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The Core Experiment CEShape1 for shape descriptors performed for the MPEG7 standard gave a unique opportunity to compare various shape descriptors for nonrigid shapes with a single closed contour. There are two main differences with respect to other comparison results reported in the literature: (1) For each shape descriptor, the experiments were carried out by an institute that is in favor of this descriptor. This implies that the parameters for each system were optimally determined and the implementations were throughly tested. (2) It was possible to compare the performance of shape descriptors based on totally different mathematical approaches. A more theoretical comparison of these descriptors seems to be extremely hard. In this paper we report on the MPEG7 Core Experiment CEShape1. 1.
Analysis of Planar Shapes Using Geodesic Paths on Shape Spaces
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 2004
"... For analyzing shapes of planar, closed curves, we propose di#erential geometric representations of curves using their direction functions and curvature functions. Shapes are represented as elements of infinitedimensional spaces and their pairwise di#erences are quantified using the lengths of ge ..."
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Cited by 170 (37 self)
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For analyzing shapes of planar, closed curves, we propose di#erential geometric representations of curves using their direction functions and curvature functions. Shapes are represented as elements of infinitedimensional spaces and their pairwise di#erences are quantified using the lengths of geodesics connecting them on these spaces. We use a Fourier basis to represent tangents to the shape spaces and then use a gradientbased shooting method to solve for the tangent that connects any two shapes via a geodesic.
Contentbased image retrieval: approaches and trends of the new age
 In Proceedings ACM International Workshop on Multimedia Information Retrieval
, 2005
"... The last decade has witnessed great interest in research on contentbased image retrieval. This has paved the way for a large number of new techniques and systems, and a growing interest in associated fields to support such systems. Likewise, digital imagery has expanded its horizon in many directio ..."
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Cited by 91 (3 self)
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The last decade has witnessed great interest in research on contentbased image retrieval. This has paved the way for a large number of new techniques and systems, and a growing interest in associated fields to support such systems. Likewise, digital imagery has expanded its horizon in many directions, resulting in an explosion in the volume of image data required to be organized. In this paper, we discuss some of the key contributions in the current decade related to image retrieval and automated image annotation, spanning 120 references. We also discuss some of the key challenges involved in the adaptation of existing image retrieval techniques to build useful systems that can handle realworld data. We conclude with a study on the trends in volume and impact of publications in the field with respect to venues/journals and subtopics.
Skeleton Pruning by Contour Partitioning with Discrete Curve Evolution
 IEEE TRANS. PATTERN ANAL. MACH. INTELL
, 2007
"... In this paper, we introduce a new skeleton pruning method based on contour partitioning. Any contour partition can be used, but the partitions obtained by Discrete Curve Evolution (DCE) yield excellent results. The theoretical properties and the experiments presented demonstrate that obtained skele ..."
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Cited by 76 (14 self)
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In this paper, we introduce a new skeleton pruning method based on contour partitioning. Any contour partition can be used, but the partitions obtained by Discrete Curve Evolution (DCE) yield excellent results. The theoretical properties and the experiments presented demonstrate that obtained skeletons are in accord with human visual perception and stable, even in the presence of significant noise and shape variations, and have the same topology as the original skeletons. In particular, we have proven that the proposed approach never produces spurious branches, which are common when using the known skeleton pruning methods. Moreover, the proposed pruning method does not displace the skeleton points. Consequently, all skeleton points are centers of maximal disks. Again, many existing methods displace skeleton points in order to produces pruned skeletons.
Distance sets for shape filters and shape recognition
 IEEE TRANS. IMAGE PROCESSING
, 2003
"... We introduce a novel rich local descriptor of an image point, we call the (labeled) distance set, which is determined by the spatial arrangement of image features around that point. We describe a twodimensional (2D) visual object by the set of (labeled) distance sets associated with the feature p ..."
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Cited by 62 (9 self)
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We introduce a novel rich local descriptor of an image point, we call the (labeled) distance set, which is determined by the spatial arrangement of image features around that point. We describe a twodimensional (2D) visual object by the set of (labeled) distance sets associated with the feature points of that object. Based on a dissimilarity measure between (labeled) distance sets and a dissimilarity measure between sets of (labeled) distance sets, we address two problems that are often encountered in object recognition: object segmentation, for which we formulate a distance sets shape filter, and shape matching. The use of the shape filter is illustrated on printed and handwritten character recognition and detection of traffic signs in complex scenes. The shape comparison procedure is illustrated on handwritten character classification, COIL20 database object recognition and MPEG7 silhouette database retrieval.
WARP: accurate retrieval of shapes using phase of fourier descriptors and time warping distance
 IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell
, 2005
"... AbstractEffective and efficient retrieval of similar shapes from large image databases is still a challenging problem in spite of the high relevance that shape information can have in describing image contents. In this paper, we propose a novel Fourierbased approach, called WARP, for matching and ..."
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Cited by 54 (1 self)
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AbstractEffective and efficient retrieval of similar shapes from large image databases is still a challenging problem in spite of the high relevance that shape information can have in describing image contents. In this paper, we propose a novel Fourierbased approach, called WARP, for matching and retrieving similar shapes. The unique characteristics of WARP are the exploitation of the phase of Fourier coefficients and the use of the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) distance to compare shape descriptors. While phase information provides a more accurate description of object boundaries than using only the amplitude of Fourier coefficients, the DTW distance permits us to accurately match images even in the presence of (limited) phase shiftings. In terms of classical precision/recall measures, we experimentally demonstrate that WARP can gain, say, up to 35 percent in precision at a 20 percent recall level with respect to Fourierbased techniques that use neither phase nor DTW distance.
Path similarity skeleton graph matching
 IEEE TRANS. PAMI
, 2008
"... This paper proposes a novel graph matching algorithm and applies it to shape recognition based on object silhouettes. The main idea is to match skeleton graphs by comparing the geodesic paths between skeleton endpoints. In contrast to typical tree or graph matching methods, we do not consider the to ..."
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Cited by 53 (8 self)
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This paper proposes a novel graph matching algorithm and applies it to shape recognition based on object silhouettes. The main idea is to match skeleton graphs by comparing the geodesic paths between skeleton endpoints. In contrast to typical tree or graph matching methods, we do not consider the topological graph structure. Our approach is motivated by the fact that visually similar skeleton graphs may have completely different topological structures. The proposed comparison of geodesic paths between endpoints of skeleton graphs yields correct matching results in such cases. The skeletons are pruned by contour partitioning with Discrete Curve Evolution, which implies that the endpoints of skeleton branches correspond to visual parts of the objects. The experimental results demonstrate that our method is able to produce correct results in the presence of articulations, stretching, and contour deformations.
A Graphbased Approach for Multiscale Shape Analysis
, 2003
"... This paper presents the advantages of computing two recently proposed shape descriptors, multiscale fractal dimension and contour saliences, using the image foresting transforma graphbased approach to the design of image processing operators. It introduces a robust approach to estimate contour ..."
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Cited by 48 (20 self)
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This paper presents the advantages of computing two recently proposed shape descriptors, multiscale fractal dimension and contour saliences, using the image foresting transforma graphbased approach to the design of image processing operators. It introduces a robust approach to estimate contour saliences (peaks of high curvature) by exploiting the relation between contour and skeleton. The paper also compares both shape descriptors to fractal dimension, Fourier descriptors, and moment invariants with respect to their invariance to object characteristics that belong to a same class (compactability) and to their discriminatory ability to separate objects that belong to distinct classes (separability).
Integral invariants for shape matching
 PAMI
, 2006
"... For shapes represented as closed planar contours, we introduce a class of functionals which are invariant with respect to the Euclidean group and which are obtained by performing integral operations. While such integral invariants enjoy some of the desirable properties of their differential counter ..."
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Cited by 42 (1 self)
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For shapes represented as closed planar contours, we introduce a class of functionals which are invariant with respect to the Euclidean group and which are obtained by performing integral operations. While such integral invariants enjoy some of the desirable properties of their differential counterparts, such as locality of computation (which allows matching under occlusions) and uniqueness of representation (asymptotically), they do not exhibit the noise sensitivity associated with differential quantities and, therefore, do not require presmoothing of the input shape. Our formulation allows the analysis of shapes at multiple scales. Based on integral invariants, we define a notion of distance between shapes. The proposed distance measure can be computed efficiently and allows warping the shape boundaries onto each other; its computation results in optimal point correspondence as an intermediate step. Numerical results on shape matching demonstrate that this framework can match shapes despite the deformation of subparts, missing parts and noise. As a quantitative analysis, we report matching scores for shape retrieval from a database.