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Visuospatial Reasoning
, 2004
"... Visuospatial reasoning is not simply a matter of running to retrieve a fly ball or wending a way through a crowd or plotting a path to a destination or stacking suitcases in a car trunk. It is a matter of determining whether gears will mesh (Schwartz & Black, 1996a), understanding how a car brak ..."
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Visuospatial reasoning is not simply a matter of running to retrieve a fly ball or wending a way through a crowd or plotting a path to a destination or stacking suitcases in a car trunk. It is a matter of determining whether gears will mesh (Schwartz & Black, 1996a), understanding how a car brake works (Heiser & Tversky, 2002), discovering how to destroy a tumor without destroying healthy tissue (Duncker, 1945; Gick & Holyoak, 1980, 1983), and designing a
Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 109 (2009) 1–8 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes
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Standardised assessment in mathematics: The tale of two items
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, 2008
"... This paper describes the sense making of 11 12 yearolds as they interpret two mathematics items which include graphics. In particular, it outlines the changed behaviour (and performance) of students when solving items when slight modifications were made to the graphic or the mathematical language ..."
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This paper describes the sense making of 11 12 yearolds as they interpret two mathematics items which include graphics. In particular, it outlines the changed behaviour (and performance) of students when solving items when slight modifications were made to the graphic or the mathematical language. The results show that performance increased when the graphic was modified but diminished when the language was modified. Implications include the need for test designers to carefully consider the graphic embedded within assessment items. The capacity to interpret and decode graphs requires the problem solver to use spatial information to make sense of nonspatial relationships and concepts (Gattis & Holyoak, 1996). In mathematics contexts, these relationships and concepts are associated with mathematics literacy and content/context information. Although graphics are often considered “one of the simplest symbolic systems for interpreting information on the relationship between two or more sources ” (Parmar & Signer, 2005, p. 250) primary students often find such representations overloaded with information and therefore difficult to decode (Lowrie & Diezmann, 2007). Moreover, graphs can become ineffective if too much information or too little information is presented (Kosslyn, 2006). If the graphics associated with testing items are not well designed, it is unlikely that results (outcomes) will be a reliable reflection of student understanding. Research Design and Methods This investigation builds upon the work of a threeyear longitudinal study in which we monitored the development of primary students ’ ability to decode test items with high graphical content. This study focuses on items that were modified in relation to either the graphic or the mathematical language. The aims of this component of the study were to: Ascertain student performance on graphics items and determine which elements of an item influence 1. performance; and Identify the sensemaking that led to success on the items. 2.
ARTICLE IN PRESS Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes xxx (2008) xxx–xxx Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
"... journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/obhdp Why don’t welleducated adults understand accumulation? A challenge ..."
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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/obhdp Why don’t welleducated adults understand accumulation? A challenge
EFFECTS GELMAN, ON RAMAN, COMPARISON and GENTNER PROCESSING
, 2009
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Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:
QR2010: 24th International Workshop on Qualitative Reasoning The Use of Qualitative Principles to Promote Understanding of Systems
"... Prior work has demonstrated that individuals have poor intuitive understanding of the principles governing the dynamics of systems, including an understanding of stocks and flows. We present pilot data that suggests that providing individuals with the qualitative principles that govern stock and flo ..."
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Prior work has demonstrated that individuals have poor intuitive understanding of the principles governing the dynamics of systems, including an understanding of stocks and flows. We present pilot data that suggests that providing individuals with the qualitative principles that govern stock and flow dynamics facilitates performance in systems thinking tasks. We also discuss followup studies we are currently running and propose future directions for this work.
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"... Are reasoning with largescale and smallscale space different? (and why should we care?) ..."
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Are reasoning with largescale and smallscale space different? (and why should we care?)
Graph Schema 1 Running Head: Shedding Light on the Graph Schema Shedding Light on the Graph Schema: Perceptual Features vs. Invariant Structure
"... Most theories of graph comprehension posit the existence of a graph schema to account for people’s prior knowledge of how to understand different graph types. The graph schema is, however, a purely theoretical construct: there are no empirical studies that have explicitly examined the nature of the ..."
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Most theories of graph comprehension posit the existence of a graph schema to account for people’s prior knowledge of how to understand different graph types. The graph schema is, however, a purely theoretical construct: there are no empirical studies that have explicitly examined the nature of the graph schema. We sought to determine whether graph schemas are based on perceptual features or on a common invariant structure shared between certain graphs. The process of activating the graph schema was isolated as participants responded to graphs presented in pure and mixed blocks. Any differences in reaction time between the blocks could be attributed to loading the appropriate schema. Results from a series of experiments using five types of graphs suggest graph schemas are based on the graphical framework, a common invariant structure among certain types of graphs. These results provide insight into the comprehension of novel graphs. Graph Schema 3 Shedding Light on the Graph Schema: Perceptual Features vs. Invariant Structure Graphs provide useful and efficient ways in which to display information. When asked to extract information from a graph, people generally have some stored knowledge which is used to comprehend the graph, despite the fact that various graph types represent information differently. How do theories of graph comprehension account for our prior knowledge of how to interpret different graphs? By focusing on how specific information is extracted from a graph, several theories of graph comprehension have been developed (Lewandowsky & Behrens,
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, 2011
"... When digits help digits: spatial–numerical associations point to finger counting as prime example of embodied cognition ..."
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When digits help digits: spatial–numerical associations point to finger counting as prime example of embodied cognition
Graphs as Tools for Scientific Reasoning
"... It is now widely recognized that higherorder cognitive activities such as scientific reasoning are significantly facilitated by the competent use of visual representations, as there are graphs and diagrams (e.g., Boulter, 2000; Roth & McGinn, 1998). These tools are commonly employed to displa ..."
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It is now widely recognized that higherorder cognitive activities such as scientific reasoning are significantly facilitated by the competent use of visual representations, as there are graphs and diagrams (e.g., Boulter, 2000; Roth & McGinn, 1998). These tools are commonly employed to display relationships between variables; moreover, they can serve as reasoning tools as the inferences drawn from represented information allow the user to derive new conceptual insights. For instance, in a coordinate system two variables are represented on the axes and their relationship may be displayed by a line graph. The slope of this graph then may represent proportional concepts such as speed, density, or the degree of concentration of different mixtures of liquids. Reasoning about the relationship between the variables displayed in the coordinate system