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FINITE ELEMENT EXTERIOR CALCULUS: FROM HODGE THEORY TO NUMERICAL STABILITY
, 2009
"... Abstract. This article reports on the confluence of two streams of research, one emanating from the fields of numerical analysis and scientific computation, the other from topology and geometry. In it we consider the numerical discretization of partial differential equations that are related to diff ..."
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Cited by 90 (5 self)
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Abstract. This article reports on the confluence of two streams of research, one emanating from the fields of numerical analysis and scientific computation, the other from topology and geometry. In it we consider the numerical discretization of partial differential equations that are related to differential complexes so that de Rham cohomology and Hodge theory are key tools for exploring the wellposedness of the continuous problem. The discretization methods we consider are finite element methods, in which a variational or weak formulation of the PDE problem is approximated by restricting the trial subspace to an appropriately constructed piecewise polynomial subspace. After Hilbert space framework for analyzing the stability and convergence of such discretizations. In this framework, the differential complex is represented by a complex of Hilbert spaces and stability is obtained by transferring Hodge theoretic structures that ensure wellposedness of the continuous problem from the continuous level to the discrete. We show stable discretization is achieved if the finite element spaces satisfy two hypotheses: they can be arranged into a subcomplex of this Hilbert complex, and there exists a bounded cochain projection from that complex to the subcomplex. In the next part of the paper, we consider the most canonical example of the abstract theory, in which the Hilbert complex is the de Rham complex of a domain in Euclidean space. We use the Koszul complex to construct two families of finite element differential forms, show that these can be arranged in subcomplexes of the de Rham complex in numerous ways, and for each construct a bounded cochain projection. The abstract theory therefore applies to give the stability and convergence of finite element approximations of the Hodge Laplacian. Other applications are considered as well, especially the elasticity complex and its application to the equations of elasticity. Background material is included to make the presentation selfcontained for a variety of readers.
NSymmetry Direction Field Design
, 2008
"... Many algorithms in computer graphics and geometry processing use two orthogonal smooth direction fields (unit tangent vector fields) defined over a surface. For instance, these direction fields are used in texture synthesis, in geometry processing or in nonphotorealistic rendering to distribute and ..."
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Cited by 64 (1 self)
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Many algorithms in computer graphics and geometry processing use two orthogonal smooth direction fields (unit tangent vector fields) defined over a surface. For instance, these direction fields are used in texture synthesis, in geometry processing or in nonphotorealistic rendering to distribute and orient elements on the surface. Such direction fields can be designed in fundamentally different ways, according to the symmetry requested: inverting a direction or swapping two directions may be allowed or not. Despite the advances realized in the last few years in the domain of geometry processing, a unified formalism is still lacking for the mathematical object that characterizes these generalized direction fields. As a consequence, existing direction field design algorithms are limited to use nonoptimum local relaxation procedures. In this paper, we formalize Nsymmetry direction fields, a generalization of classical direction fields. We give a new definition of their singularities to explain how they relate with the topology of the surface. Namely, we provide an accessible demonstration of the PoincaréHopf theorem in the case of Nsymmetry direction fields on 2manifolds. Based on this theorem, we explain how to control the topology of Nsymmetry direction fields on meshes. We demonstrate the validity and robustness of this formalism by deriving a highly efficient algorithm to design a smooth eld interpolating user de ned singularities and directions.
Discrete Surface Ricci Flow
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VISUALIZATION AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS
"... This work introduces a unified framework for discrete surface Ricci flow algorithms, including spherical, Euclidean, and hyperbolic Ricci flows, which can design Riemannian metrics on surfaces with arbitrary topologies by userdefined Gaussian curvatures. Furthermore, the target metrics are conform ..."
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Cited by 42 (22 self)
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This work introduces a unified framework for discrete surface Ricci flow algorithms, including spherical, Euclidean, and hyperbolic Ricci flows, which can design Riemannian metrics on surfaces with arbitrary topologies by userdefined Gaussian curvatures. Furthermore, the target metrics are conformal (anglepreserving) to the original metrics. Ricci flow conformally deforms the Riemannian metric on a surface according to its induced curvature, such that the curvature evolves like a heat diffusion process. Eventually, the curvature becomes the user defined curvature. Discrete Ricci flow algorithms are based on a variational framework. Given a mesh, all possible metrics form a linear space, and all possible curvatures form a convex polytope. The Ricci energy is defined on the metric space, which reaches its minimum at the desired metric. The Ricci flow is the negative gradient flow of the Ricci energy. Furthermore, the Ricci energy can be optimized using Newton’s method more efficiently. Discrete Ricci flow algorithms are rigorous and efficient. Our experimental results demonstrate the efficiency, accuracy and flexibility of the algorithms. They have the potential for a wide range of applications in graphics, geometric modeling, and medical imaging. We demonstrate their practical values by global surface parameterizations.
Spectral quadrangulation with orientation and alignment control
 IN ACM SIGGRAPH ASIA
, 2008
"... This paper presents a new quadrangulation algorithm, extending the spectral surface quadrangulation approach where the coarse quadrangular structure is derived from the MorseSmale complex of an eigenfunction of the Laplacian operator on the input mesh. In contrast to the original scheme, we provi ..."
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Cited by 37 (10 self)
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This paper presents a new quadrangulation algorithm, extending the spectral surface quadrangulation approach where the coarse quadrangular structure is derived from the MorseSmale complex of an eigenfunction of the Laplacian operator on the input mesh. In contrast to the original scheme, we provide flexible explicit controls of the shape, size, orientation and feature alignment of the quadrangular faces. We achieve this by proper selection of the optimal eigenvalue (shape), by adaption of the area term in the Laplacian operator (size), and by adding special constraints to the Laplace eigenproblem (orientation and alignment). By solving a generalized eigenproblem we can generate a scalar field on the mesh whose MorseSmale complex is of high quality and satisfies all the user requirements. The final quadrilateral mesh is generated from the MorseSmale complex by computing a globally smooth parametrization. Here we additionally introduce edge constraints to preserve user specified feature lines accurately.
Flowbased image abstraction
 IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
, 2009
"... Abstract—We present a nonphotorealistic rendering technique that automatically delivers a stylized abstraction of a photograph. Our approach is based on shape/color filtering guided by a vector field that describes the flow of salient features in the image. This flowbased filtering significantly im ..."
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Cited by 30 (4 self)
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Abstract—We present a nonphotorealistic rendering technique that automatically delivers a stylized abstraction of a photograph. Our approach is based on shape/color filtering guided by a vector field that describes the flow of salient features in the image. This flowbased filtering significantly improves the abstraction performance in terms of feature enhancement and stylization. Our method is simple, fast, and easy to implement. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method in producing stylistic and featureenhancing illustrations from photographs. Index Terms—Nonphotorealistic rendering, image abstraction, flowbased filtering, line drawing, bilateral filter. Ç 1
A Photometric Approach for Estimating Normals and Tangents
"... This paper presents a technique for acquiring the shape of realworld objects with complex isotropic and anisotropic reflectance. Our method estimates the local normal and tangent vectors at each pixel in a reference view from a sequence of images taken under varying point lighting. We show that for ..."
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Cited by 24 (3 self)
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This paper presents a technique for acquiring the shape of realworld objects with complex isotropic and anisotropic reflectance. Our method estimates the local normal and tangent vectors at each pixel in a reference view from a sequence of images taken under varying point lighting. We show that for many realworld materials and a restricted set of light positions, the 2D slice of the BRDF obtained by fixing the local view direction is symmetric under reflections of the halfway vector across the normaltangent and normalbinormal planes. Based on this analysis, we develop an optimization that estimates the local surface frame by identifying these planes of symmetry in the measured BRDF. As with other photometric methods, a key benefit of our approach is that the input is easy to acquire and is less sensitive to calibration errors than stereo or multiview techniques. Unlike prior work, our approach allows estimating the surface tangent in the case of anisotropic reflectance. We confirm the accuracy and reliability of our approach with analytic and measured data, present several normal and tangent fields acquired with our technique, and demonstrate applications to appearance editing.
GeometryAware Direction Field Processing
, 2009
"... Many algorithms in texture synthesis, nonphotorealistic rendering (hatching), or remeshing require to define the orientation of some features (texture, hatches, or edges) at each point of a surface. In early works, tangent vector (or tensor) fields were used to define the orientation of these featur ..."
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Cited by 21 (1 self)
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Many algorithms in texture synthesis, nonphotorealistic rendering (hatching), or remeshing require to define the orientation of some features (texture, hatches, or edges) at each point of a surface. In early works, tangent vector (or tensor) fields were used to define the orientation of these features. Extrapolating and smoothing such fields is usually performed by minimizing an energy composed of a smoothness term and of a data fitting term. More recently, dedicated structures (NRoSy and Nsymmetry direction fields) were introduced in order to unify the manipulation of these fields, and provide control over the field’s topology (singularities). On the one hand, controlling the topology makes it possible to have few singularities, even in the presence of high frequencies (fine details) in the surface geometry. On the other hand, the user has to explicitly specify all singularities, which can be a tedious task. It would be better to let them emerge naturally from the direction extrapolation and smoothing. This article introduces an intermediate representation that still allows the intuitive design operations such as smoothing and directional constraints, but restates the objective function in a way that avoids the singularities yielded by smaller geometric details. The resulting design tool is intuitive, simple, and allows to create fields with simple topology, even in the presence of high geometric frequencies. The generated field can be used to steer global parameterization methods (e.g., QuadCover).
Trivial Connections on Discrete Surfaces
 SGP 2010 / COMPUTER GRAPHICS FORUM
, 2010
"... This paper presents a straightforward algorithm for constructing connections on discrete surfaces that are as smooth as possible everywhere but on a set of isolated singularities with given index. We compute these connections by solving a single linear system built from standard operators. The solut ..."
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Cited by 17 (1 self)
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This paper presents a straightforward algorithm for constructing connections on discrete surfaces that are as smooth as possible everywhere but on a set of isolated singularities with given index. We compute these connections by solving a single linear system built from standard operators. The solution can be used to design rotationally symmetric direction fields with userspecified singularities and directional constraints.
Freeform Vector Graphics with Controlled ThinPlate Splines
"... Figure 1: We build on thinplate splines to enrich vector graphics with a variety of powerful and intuitive controls. Recent work defines vector graphics using diffusion between colored curves. We explore higherorder fairing to enable more natural interpolation and greater expressive control. Speci ..."
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Cited by 13 (1 self)
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Figure 1: We build on thinplate splines to enrich vector graphics with a variety of powerful and intuitive controls. Recent work defines vector graphics using diffusion between colored curves. We explore higherorder fairing to enable more natural interpolation and greater expressive control. Specifically, we build on thinplate splines which provide smoothness everywhere except at userspecified tears and creases (discontinuities in value and derivative respectively). Our system lets a user sketch discontinuity curves without fixing their colors, and sprinkle color constraints at sparse interior points to obtain smooth interpolation subject to the outlines. We refine the representation with novel contour and slope curves, which anisotropically constrain interpolation derivatives. Compound curves further increase editing power by expanding a single curve into multiple offsets of various basic types (value, tear, crease, slope, and contour). The vector constraints are discretized over an image grid, and satisfied using a hierarchical solver. We demonstrate interactive authoring on a desktop CPU.