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173
Opportunistic Data Structures with Applications
, 2000
"... In this paper we address the issue of compressing and indexing data. We devise a data structure whose space occupancy is a function of the entropy of the underlying data set. We call the data structure opportunistic since its space occupancy is decreased when the input is compressible and this space ..."
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Cited by 296 (11 self)
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In this paper we address the issue of compressing and indexing data. We devise a data structure whose space occupancy is a function of the entropy of the underlying data set. We call the data structure opportunistic since its space occupancy is decreased when the input is compressible and this space reduction is achieved at no significant slowdown in the query performance. More precisely, its space occupancy is optimal in an informationcontent sense because a text T [1, u] is stored using O(H k (T )) + o(1) bits per input symbol in the worst case, where H k (T ) is the kth order empirical entropy of T (the bound holds for any fixed k). Given an arbitrary string P [1; p], the opportunistic data structure allows to search for the occ occurrences of P in T in O(p + occ log u) time (for any fixed > 0). If data are uncompressible we achieve the best space bound currently known [12]; on compressible data our solution improves the succinct suffix array of [12] and the classical suffix tree and suffix array data structures either in space or in query time or both.
Compressed fulltext indexes
 ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 2007
"... Fulltext indexes provide fast substring search over large text collections. A serious problem of these indexes has traditionally been their space consumption. A recent trend is to develop indexes that exploit the compressibility of the text, so that their size is a function of the compressed text l ..."
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Cited by 263 (94 self)
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Fulltext indexes provide fast substring search over large text collections. A serious problem of these indexes has traditionally been their space consumption. A recent trend is to develop indexes that exploit the compressibility of the text, so that their size is a function of the compressed text length. This concept has evolved into selfindexes, which in addition contain enough information to reproduce any text portion, so they replace the text. The exciting possibility of an index that takes space close to that of the compressed text, replaces it, and in addition provides fast search over it, has triggered a wealth of activity and produced surprising results in a very short time, and radically changed the status of this area in less than five years. The most successful indexes nowadays are able to obtain almost optimal space and search time simultaneously. In this paper we present the main concepts underlying selfindexes. We explain the relationship between text entropy and regularities that show up in index structures and permit compressing them. Then we cover the most relevant selfindexes up to date, focusing on the essential aspects on how they exploit the text compressibility and how they solve efficiently various search problems. We aim at giving the theoretical background to understand and follow the developments in this area.
Compressed representations of sequences and fulltext indexes
 ACM Transactions on Algorithms
, 2007
"... Abstract. Given a sequence S = s1s2... sn of integers smaller than r = O(polylog(n)), we show how S can be represented using nH0(S) + o(n) bits, so that we can know any sq, as well as answer rank and select queries on S, in constant time. H0(S) is the zeroorder empirical entropy of S and nH0(S) pro ..."
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Cited by 155 (76 self)
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Abstract. Given a sequence S = s1s2... sn of integers smaller than r = O(polylog(n)), we show how S can be represented using nH0(S) + o(n) bits, so that we can know any sq, as well as answer rank and select queries on S, in constant time. H0(S) is the zeroorder empirical entropy of S and nH0(S) provides an Information Theoretic lower bound to the bit storage of any sequence S via a fixed encoding of its symbols. This extends previous results on binary sequences, and improves previous results on general sequences where those queries are answered in O(log r) time. For larger r, we can still represent S in nH0(S) + o(n log r) bits and answer queries in O(log r / log log n) time. Another contribution of this paper is to show how to combine our compressed representation of integer sequences with an existing compression boosting technique to design compressed fulltext indexes that scale well with the size of the input alphabet Σ. Namely, we design a variant of the FMindex that indexes a string T [1, n] within nHk(T) + o(n) bits of storage, where Hk(T) is the kth order empirical entropy of T. This space bound holds simultaneously for all k ≤ α log Σ  n, constant 0 < α < 1, and Σ  = O(polylog(n)). This index counts the occurrences of an arbitrary pattern P [1, p] as a substring of T in O(p) time; it locates each pattern occurrence in O(log 1+ε n) time, for any constant 0 < ε < 1; and it reports a text substring of length ℓ in O(ℓ + log 1+ε n) time.
On prediction using variable order Markov models
 JOURNAL OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE RESEARCH
, 2004
"... This paper is concerned with algorithms for prediction of discrete sequences over a finite alphabet, using variable order Markov models. The class of such algorithms is large and in principle includes any lossless compression algorithm. We focus on six prominent prediction algorithms, including Cont ..."
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Cited by 105 (1 self)
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This paper is concerned with algorithms for prediction of discrete sequences over a finite alphabet, using variable order Markov models. The class of such algorithms is large and in principle includes any lossless compression algorithm. We focus on six prominent prediction algorithms, including Context Tree Weighting (CTW), Prediction by Partial Match (PPM) and Probabilistic Suffix Trees (PSTs). We discuss the properties of these algorithms and compare their performance using real life sequences from three domains: proteins, English text and music pieces. The comparison is made with respect to prediction quality as measured by the average logloss. We also compare classification algorithms based on these predictors with respect to a number of large protein classification tasks. Our results indicate that a “decomposed” CTW (a variant of the CTW algorithm) and PPM outperform all other algorithms in sequence prediction tasks. Somewhat surprisingly, a different algorithm, which is a modification of the LempelZiv compression algorithm, significantly outperforms all algorithms on the protein classification problems.
Engineering a lightweight suffix array construction algorithm (Extended Abstract)
"... In this paper we consider the problem of computing the suffix array of a text T [1, n]. This problem consists in sorting the suffixes of T in lexicographic order. The suffix array [16] (or pat array [9]) is a simple, easy to code, and elegant data structure used for several fundamental string matchi ..."
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Cited by 81 (3 self)
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In this paper we consider the problem of computing the suffix array of a text T [1, n]. This problem consists in sorting the suffixes of T in lexicographic order. The suffix array [16] (or pat array [9]) is a simple, easy to code, and elegant data structure used for several fundamental string matching problems involving both linguistic texts and biological data [4, 11]. Recently, the interest in this data structure has been revitalized by its use as a building block for three novel applications: (1) the BurrowsWheeler compression algorithm [3], which is a provably [17] and practically [20] effective compression tool; (2) the construction of succinct [10, 19] and compressed [7, 8] indexes; the latter can store both the input text and its fulltext index using roughly the same space used by traditional compressors for the text alone; and (3) algorithms for clustering and ranking the answers to user queries in websearch engines [22]. In all these applications the construction of the suffix array is the computational bottleneck both in time and space. This motivated our interest in designing yet another suffix array construction algorithm which is fast and "lightweight" in the sense that it uses small space...
Succinct suffix arrays based on runlength encoding
 Nordic Journal of Computing
, 2005
"... A succinct fulltext selfindex is a data structure built on a text T = t1t2...tn, which takes little space (ideally close to that of the compressed text), permits efficient search for the occurrences of a pattern P = p1p2... pm in T, and is able to reproduce any text substring, so the selfindex re ..."
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Cited by 60 (32 self)
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A succinct fulltext selfindex is a data structure built on a text T = t1t2...tn, which takes little space (ideally close to that of the compressed text), permits efficient search for the occurrences of a pattern P = p1p2... pm in T, and is able to reproduce any text substring, so the selfindex replaces the text. Several remarkable selfindexes have been developed in recent years. Many of those take space proportional to nH0 or nHk bits, where Hk is the kth order empirical entropy of T. The time to count how many times does P occur in T ranges from O(m) to O(m log n). In this paper we present a new selfindex, called RLFM index for “runlength FMindex”, that counts the occurrences of P in T in O(m) time when the alphabet size is σ = O(polylog(n)). The RLFM index requires nHk log σ + O(n) bits of space, for any k ≤ α log σ n and constant 0 < α < 1. Previous indexes that achieve O(m) counting time either require more than nH0 bits of space or require that σ = O(1). We also show that the RLFM index can be enhanced to locate occurrences in the text and display text substrings in time independent of σ. In addition, we prove a close relationship between the kth order entropy of the text and some regularities that show up in their suffix arrays and in the BurrowsWheeler transform of T. This relationship is of independent interest and permits bounding the space occupancy of the RLFM index, as well as that of other existing compressed indexes. Finally, we present some practical considerations in order to implement the RLFM index, obtaining two implementations with different spacetime tradeoffs. We empirically compare our indexes against the best existing implementations and show that they are practical and competitive against those. 1
Structuring labeled trees for optimal succinctness, and beyond
 In FOCS
, 2005
"... Consider an ordered, static tree T on t nodes where each node has a label from alphabet set Σ. TreeTmaybeofar bitrary degree and of arbitrary shape. Say, we wish to support basic navigational operations such as find the parent of node u,theith child of u, and any child of u with label α. In a semina ..."
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Cited by 57 (8 self)
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Consider an ordered, static tree T on t nodes where each node has a label from alphabet set Σ. TreeTmaybeofar bitrary degree and of arbitrary shape. Say, we wish to support basic navigational operations such as find the parent of node u,theith child of u, and any child of u with label α. In a seminal work over fifteen years ago, Jacobson [15] observed that pointerbased tree representations are wasteful in space and introduced the notion of succinct data structures. He studied the special case of unlabeled trees and presented a succinct data structure of 2t+o(t) bits supporting navigational operations in O(1) time. The space used is asymptotically optimal with the informationtheoretic lower bound averaged over all trees. This led to a slew of results on succinct data structures for arrays, trees, strings
Rank and select revisited and extended
 Workshop on SpaceConscious Algorithms, University of
, 2006
"... The deep connection between the BurrowsWheeler transform (BWT) and the socalled rank and select data structures for symbol sequences is the basis of most successful approaches to compressed text indexing. Rank of a symbol at a given position equals the number of times the symbol appears in the corr ..."
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Cited by 50 (24 self)
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The deep connection between the BurrowsWheeler transform (BWT) and the socalled rank and select data structures for symbol sequences is the basis of most successful approaches to compressed text indexing. Rank of a symbol at a given position equals the number of times the symbol appears in the corresponding prefix of the sequence. Select is the inverse, retrieving the positions of the symbol occurrences. It has been shown that improvements to rank/select algorithms, in combination with the BWT, turn into improved compressed text indexes. This paper is devoted to alternative implementations and extensions of rank and select data structures. First, we show that one can use gap encoding techniques to obtain constant time rank and select queries in essentially the same space as what is achieved by the best current direct solution (and sometimes less). Second, we extend symbol rank and select to substring rank and select, giving several space/time tradeoffs for the problem. An application of these queries is in positionrestricted substring searching, where one can specify the range in the text where the search is restricted to, and only occurrences residing in that range are to be reported. In addition, arbitrary occurrences are reported in text position order. Several byproducts of our results display connections with searchable partial sums, Chazelle’s twodimensional data structures, and Grossi et al.’s wavelet trees.