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Approaches to measuring inconsistent information
 Inconsistency Tolerance. Volume 3300 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2005
"... Abstract. Measures of quantity of information have been studied extensively for more than fifty years. The seminal work on information theory is by Shannon [67]. This work, based on probability theory, can be used in a logical setting when the worlds are the possible events. This work is also the ba ..."
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Abstract. Measures of quantity of information have been studied extensively for more than fifty years. The seminal work on information theory is by Shannon [67]. This work, based on probability theory, can be used in a logical setting when the worlds are the possible events. This work is also the basis of Lozinskii’s work [48] for defining the quantity of information of a formula (or knowledgebase) in propositional logic. But this definition is not suitable when the knowledgebase is inconsistent. In this case, it has no classical model, so we have no “event ” to count. This is a shortcoming since in practical applications (e.g. databases) it often happens that the knowledgebase is not consistent. And it is definitely not true that all inconsistent knowledgebases contain the same (null) amount of information, as given by the “classical information theory”. As explored for several years in the paraconsistent logic community, two inconsistent knowledgebases can lead to very different conclusions, showing that they do not convey the same information. There has been some
Quantifying information and contradiction in propositional logic through epistemic actions
 In Proceedings of the 18th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intellignce (IJCAI’03
, 2003
"... test actions ..."
Logical Comparison of Inconsistent Perspectives Using Scoring Functions
 Knowledge and Information Systems Journal
, 2003
"... The language for describing inconsistency is underdeveloped. If a database (a set of formulae) is inconsistent, there is usually no qualification of that inconsistency. Yet, it would seem useful to be able to say how inconsistent a database is, or to say whether one database is "more inconsiste ..."
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The language for describing inconsistency is underdeveloped. If a database (a set of formulae) is inconsistent, there is usually no qualification of that inconsistency. Yet, it would seem useful to be able to say how inconsistent a database is, or to say whether one database is "more inconsistent" than another database. In this paper, we provide a more general characterization of inconsistency in terms of a scoring function for each database Delta. A scoring function S is from the power set of Delta into the natural numbers defined so that S(Gamma) gives the number of minimally inconsistent subsets of Delta that would be eliminated if the subset Gamma was removed from Delta. This characterization offers an expressive and succinct means for articulating, in general terms, the nature of inconsistency in a set of formulae. We then compare databases using their scoring functions. This gives an intuitive ordering relation over databases that we can describe as "more inconsistent than". These techniques are potentially useful in a wide range of problems including monitoring progress in negotiations between a number of participants, and in comparing heterogeneous sources of information.
On the measure of conflicts: Shapley inconsistency values
 Artificial Intelligence
"... There are relatively few proposals for inconsistency measures for propositional belief bases. However inconsistency measures are potentially as important as information measures for artificial intelligence, and more generally for computer science. In particular, they can be useful to define various ..."
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Cited by 14 (3 self)
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There are relatively few proposals for inconsistency measures for propositional belief bases. However inconsistency measures are potentially as important as information measures for artificial intelligence, and more generally for computer science. In particular, they can be useful to define various operators for belief revision, belief merging, and negotiation. The measures that have been proposed so far can be split into two classes. The first class of measures takes into account the number of formulae required to produce an inconsistency: the more formulae required to produce an inconsistency, the less inconsistent the base. The second class takes into account the proportion of the language that is affected by the inconsistency: the more propositional variables affected, the more inconsistent the base. Both approaches are sensible, but there is no proposal for combining them. We address this need in this paper: our proposal takes into account both the number of variables affected by the inconsistency and the distribution of the inconsistency among the formulae of the base. Our idea is to use existing inconsistency measures in order to define a game in coalitional form, and then to use the Shapley value to obtain an inconsistency measure that indicates the responsibility/contribution of each formula to the overall inconsistency in the base. This allows us to provide a more reliable image of the belief base and of the inconsistency in it. ⇤ This paper is a revised and extended version of the paper ”Shapley Inconcistency Values ” presented at KR’06. 1 1
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"... There are relatively few proposals for inconsistency measures for propositional belief bases. However inconsistency measures are potentially as important as information measures for artificial intelligence, and more generally for computer science. In particular, they can be useful to define various ..."
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There are relatively few proposals for inconsistency measures for propositional belief bases. However inconsistency measures are potentially as important as information measures for artificial intelligence, and more generally for computer science. In particular, they can be useful to define various operators for belief revision, belief merging, and negotiation. The measures that have been proposed so far can be split into two classes. The first class of measures takes into account the number of formulae required to produce an inconsistency: the more formulae required to produce an inconsistency, the less inconsistent the base. The second class takes into account the proportion of the language that is affected by the inconsistency: the more propositional variables affected, the more inconsistent the base. Both approaches are sensible, but there is no proposal for combining them. We address this need in this paper: our proposal takes into account both the number of variables affected by the inconsistency and the distribution of the inconsistency among the formulae of the base. Our idea is to use existing inconsistency measures (ones that takes into account the proportion of the language affected by the inconsistency, and so allow us to look inside the formulae) in order to define a game in coalitional form, and then to use the Shapley value to obtain an inconsistency measure that indicates the responsibility/contribution of each formula to the overall inconsistency in the base. This allows us to provide a more reliable image of the belief base and of the inconsistency in it.
Man Bites Dog: Looking for Interesting Inconsistencies in Structured News Reports ∗
, 2003
"... Much useful information in news reports is often that which is surprising or unexpected. In other words, we harbour many expectations about the world, and when any of these expectation are violated (i.e. made inconsistent) by news, we have a strong indicator of some information that is interesting f ..."
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Much useful information in news reports is often that which is surprising or unexpected. In other words, we harbour many expectations about the world, and when any of these expectation are violated (i.e. made inconsistent) by news, we have a strong indicator of some information that is interesting for us. In this paper we present a framework for identifying interesting information in news reports by finding interesting inconsistencies. An implemented system based on this framework (1) accepts structured news reports as inputs, (2) translates each report to a logical literal, (3) identifies the story of which the report is a part, (4) looks for inconsistencies between the report, the background knowledge, and a set of expectations, (5) classifies and evaluates those inconsistencies, and (6) outputs news reports of interest to the user together with associated explanations of why they are interesting. 1
unknown title
"... There are relatively few proposals for inconsistency measures for propositional belief bases. However inconsistency measures are potentially as important as information measures for artificial intelligence, and more generally for computer science. In particular, they can be useful to define various ..."
Abstract
 Add to MetaCart
There are relatively few proposals for inconsistency measures for propositional belief bases. However inconsistency measures are potentially as important as information measures for artificial intelligence, and more generally for computer science. In particular, they can be useful to define various operators for belief revision, belief merging, and negotiation. The measures that have been proposed so far can be split into two classes. The first class of measures takes into account the number of formulae required to produce an inconsistency: the more formulae required to produce an inconsistency, the less inconsistent the base. The second class takes into account the proportion of the language that is affected by the inconsistency: the more propositional variables affected, the more inconsistent the base. Both approaches are sensible, but there is no proposal for combining them. We address this need in this paper: our proposal takes into account both the number of variables affected by the inconsistency and the distribution of the inconsistency among the formulae of the base. Our idea is to use existing inconsistency measures (ones that takes into account the proportion of the language affected by the inconsistency, and so allow us to look inside the formulae) in order to define a game in coalitional form, and then to use the Shapley value to obtain an inconsistency measure that indicates the responsibility/contribution of each formula to the overall inconsistency in the base. This allows us to provide a more reliable image of the belief base and of the inconsistency in it.