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397
Efficiently mining long patterns from databases
, 1998
"... We present a patternmining algorithm that scales roughly linearly in the number of maximal patterns embedded in a database irrespective of the length of the longest pattern. In comparison, previous algorithms based on Apriori scale exponentially with longest pattern length. Experiments on real data ..."
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Cited by 457 (3 self)
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We present a patternmining algorithm that scales roughly linearly in the number of maximal patterns embedded in a database irrespective of the length of the longest pattern. In comparison, previous algorithms based on Apriori scale exponentially with longest pattern length. Experiments on real data show that when the patterns are long, our algorithm is more efficient by an order of magnimaximal frequent itemset, MaxMiner’s output implicitly and concisely represents all frequent itemsets. MaxMiner is shown to result in two or more orders of magnitude in performance improvements over Apriori on some datasets. On other datasets where the patterns are not so long, the gains are more modest. In practice, MaxMiner is demonstrated to run in time that is roughly linear in the number of maximal frequent itemsets and the size of the database, irrespective of the size of the longest frequent itemset. tude or more. 1.
SPADE: An efficient algorithm for mining frequent sequences
 Machine Learning
, 2001
"... Abstract. In this paper we present SPADE, a new algorithm for fast discovery of Sequential Patterns. The existing solutions to this problem make repeated database scans, and use complex hash structures which have poor locality. SPADE utilizes combinatorial properties to decompose the original proble ..."
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Cited by 437 (16 self)
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Abstract. In this paper we present SPADE, a new algorithm for fast discovery of Sequential Patterns. The existing solutions to this problem make repeated database scans, and use complex hash structures which have poor locality. SPADE utilizes combinatorial properties to decompose the original problem into smaller subproblems, that can be independently solved in mainmemory using efficient lattice search techniques, and using simple join operations. All sequences are discovered in only three database scans. Experiments show that SPADE outperforms the best previous algorithm by a factor of two, and by an order of magnitude with some preprocessed data. It also has linear scalability with respect to the number of inputsequences, and a number of other database parameters. Finally, we discuss how the results of sequence mining can be applied in a real application domain.
Discovering Frequent Closed Itemsets for Association Rules
, 1999
"... In this paper, we address the problem of finding frequent itemsets in a database. Using the closed itemset lattice framework, we show that this problem can be reduced to the problem of finding frequent closed itemsets. Based on this statement, we can construct efficient data mining algorithms by lim ..."
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Cited by 410 (14 self)
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In this paper, we address the problem of finding frequent itemsets in a database. Using the closed itemset lattice framework, we show that this problem can be reduced to the problem of finding frequent closed itemsets. Based on this statement, we can construct efficient data mining algorithms by limiting the search space to the closed itemset lattice rather than the subset lattice. Moreover, we show that the set of all frequent closed itemsets suffices to determine a reduced set of association rules, thus addressing another important data mining problem: limiting the number of rules produced without information loss. We propose a new algorithm, called AClose, using a closure mechanism to find frequent closed itemsets. We realized experiments to compare our approach to the commonly used frequent itemset search approach. Those experiments showed that our approach is very valuable for dense and/or correlated data that represent an important part of existing databases.
Scalable Algorithms for Association Mining
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON KNOWLEDGE AND DATA ENGINEERING
, 2000
"... Association rule discovery has emerged as an important problem in knowledge discovery and data mining. The association mining task consists of identifying the frequent itemsets, and then forming conditional implication rules among them. In this paper we present efficient algorithms for the discovery ..."
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Cited by 259 (23 self)
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Association rule discovery has emerged as an important problem in knowledge discovery and data mining. The association mining task consists of identifying the frequent itemsets, and then forming conditional implication rules among them. In this paper we present efficient algorithms for the discovery of frequent itemsets, which forms the compute intensive phase of the task. The algorithms utilize the structural properties of frequent itemsets to facilitate fast discovery. The items are organized into a subset lattice search space, which is decomposed into small independent chunks or sublattices, which can be solved in memory. Efficient lattice traversal techniques are presented, which quickly identify all the long frequent itemsets, and their subsets if required. We also present the effect of using different database layout schemes combined with the proposed decomposition and traversal techniques. We experimentally compare the new algorithms against the previous approaches, obtaining ...
Efficient Mining of Frequent Subgraph in the Presence of Isomorphism
"... Frequent subgraph mining is an active research topic in the data mining community. A graph is a general model to represent data and has been used in many domains like cheminformatics and bioinformatics. Mining patterns from graph databases is challenging since graph related operations, such as subgr ..."
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Cited by 194 (23 self)
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Frequent subgraph mining is an active research topic in the data mining community. A graph is a general model to represent data and has been used in many domains like cheminformatics and bioinformatics. Mining patterns from graph databases is challenging since graph related operations, such as subgraph testing, generally have higher time complexity than the corresponding operations on itemsets, sequences, and trees, which have been studied extensively. In this paper, we propose a novel frequent subgraph mining algorithm: FFSM, which employs a vertical search scheme within an algebraic graphical framework we have developed to reduce the number of redundant candidates proposed. Our empirical study on synthetic and real datasets demonstrates that FFSM achieves a substantial performance gain over the current startoftheart subgraph mining algorithm gSpan.
A tree projection algorithm for generation of frequent itemsets
 Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing
, 2000
"... In this paper we propose algorithms for generation of frequent itemsets by successive construction of the nodes of a lexicographic tree of itemsets. We discuss di erent strategies in generation and traversal of the lexicographic tree such as breadth rst search, depth rst search or a combination of ..."
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Cited by 192 (2 self)
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In this paper we propose algorithms for generation of frequent itemsets by successive construction of the nodes of a lexicographic tree of itemsets. We discuss di erent strategies in generation and traversal of the lexicographic tree such as breadth rst search, depth rst search or a combination of the two. These techniques provide di erent tradeo s in terms of the I/O, memory and computational time requirements. We use the hierarchical structure of the lexicographic tree to successively project transactions at each node of the lexicographic tree, and use matrix counting on this reduced set of transactions for nding frequent itemsets. We tested our algorithm on both real and synthetic data. We provide an implementation of the tree projection method which is up to one order of magnitude faster than other recent techniques in the literature. The algorithm has a well structured data access pattern which provides data locality and reuse of data for multiple levels of the cache. We also discuss methods for parallelization of the
Scalable Parallel Data Mining for Association Rules
, 1997
"... One of the important problems in data mining is discovering association rules from databases of transactions where each transaction consists of a set of items. The most time consuming operation in this discovery process is the computation of the frequency of the occurrences of interesting subset of ..."
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Cited by 181 (12 self)
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One of the important problems in data mining is discovering association rules from databases of transactions where each transaction consists of a set of items. The most time consuming operation in this discovery process is the computation of the frequency of the occurrences of interesting subset of items (called candidates) in the database of transactions. To prune the exponentially large space of candidates, most existing algorithms, consider only those candidates that have a user defined minimum support. Even with the pruning, the task of finding all association rules requires a lot of computation power and time. Parallel computers offer a potential solution to the computation requirement of this task, provided efficient and scalable parallel algorithms can be designed. In this paper, we present two new parallel algorithms for mining association rules. The Intelligent Data Distribution algorithm efficiently uses aggregate memory of the parallel computer by employing intelligent candi...
Mining molecular fragments: Finding relevant substructures of molecules
 Proc. of the ICDM
, 2002
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Algorithms for Association Rule Mining  A General Survey and Comparison
, 2000
"... Today there are several efficient algorithms that cope with the popular and computationally expensive task of association rule mining. Actually, these algorithms are more or less described on their own. In this paper we explain the fundamentals of association rule mining and moreover derive a genera ..."
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Cited by 155 (5 self)
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Today there are several efficient algorithms that cope with the popular and computationally expensive task of association rule mining. Actually, these algorithms are more or less described on their own. In this paper we explain the fundamentals of association rule mining and moreover derive a general framework. Based on this we describe today's approaches in context by pointing out common aspects and differences. After that we thoroughly investigate their strengths and weaknesses and carry out several runtime experiments. It turns out that the runtime behavior of the algorithms is much more similar as to be expected.