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A fusion of maximum likelihood and structural steganalysis
, 2007
"... This paper draws together two methodologies for the detection of bit replacement steganography: the principle of maximum likelihood, which is statistically wellfounded but has lead to weak detectors in practice, and socalled structural detection, which is sensitive but lacks optimality and can s ..."
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Cited by 16 (4 self)
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This paper draws together two methodologies for the detection of bit replacement steganography: the principle of maximum likelihood, which is statistically wellfounded but has lead to weak detectors in practice, and socalled structural detection, which is sensitive but lacks optimality and can suffer from complicated exposition. The key novelty is to extend structural analysis to include a hypothetical “precover”, from which the cover object is imagined to derive. Here, maximum likelihood detection is presented for three structural detectors. Although the algebraic derivation is long, and maximizing the likelihood function difficult in practice, conceptually the new detectors are reasonably simple. Experiments show that the new detectors are the best performers yet, very significantly so in the detection of replacement of multiple bit planes.
Determining achievable rates for secure, zero divergence, steganography
 in Proceedings of ICIP
, 2006
"... In steganography (the hiding of data into innocuous covers for secret communication) it is difficult to estimate how much data can be hidden while still remaining undetectable. To measure the inherent detectability of steganography, Cachin [1] suggested the csecure measure, where c is the Kullback ..."
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Cited by 9 (4 self)
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In steganography (the hiding of data into innocuous covers for secret communication) it is difficult to estimate how much data can be hidden while still remaining undetectable. To measure the inherent detectability of steganography, Cachin [1] suggested the csecure measure, where c is the Kullback Leibler (KL) divergence between the cover distribution and the distribution after hiding. At zero divergence, an optimal statistical detector can do no better than guessing; the data is undetectable. The hider's key question then is, what hiding rate can be used while maintaining zero divergence? Though work has been done on the theoretical capacity of steganography, it is often difficult to use these results in practice. We therefore examine the limits of a practical scheme known to allow embedding with zerodivergence. This scheme is independent of the embedding algorithm and therefore can be generically applied to find an achievable secure hiding rate for arbitrary cover distributions. Index Terms Steganography, steganalysis 1.
Quantitative Structural Steganalysis of Jsteg
, 2010
"... Quantitative steganalysis strives to estimate the change rate defined as the relative number of embedding changes introduced by steganography. In this paper, we propose two new classes of quantitative steganalysis methods for the steganographic algorithm Jsteg. The first class obtains the changerate ..."
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Cited by 3 (2 self)
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Quantitative steganalysis strives to estimate the change rate defined as the relative number of embedding changes introduced by steganography. In this paper, we propose two new classes of quantitative steganalysis methods for the steganographic algorithm Jsteg. The first class obtains the changerate estimate using a maximum likelihood estimator equipped with a precover model. While this approach provides better accuracy than existing structural attacks, it becomes computationally intractable with increasing complexity of the cover model. The second class of methods computes the changerate estimate by minimizing an objective function constructed from a heuristicallyformed zero message hypothesis. The advantage of this heuristic approach is a low implementation complexity and modular architecture that allows flexible incorporation of higherorder statistics of DCT coefficients. The proposed methods are experimentally compared with current stateoftheart methods.
Quantitative Steganalysis of LSB Embedding in JPEG Domain
, 2010
"... We construct new quantitative steganalyzers for steganographic techniques that hide data using LSB embedding in quantized DCT coefficients of a JPEG file. Two approaches are explored – changerate estimation using the maximum likelihood principle with a precover model and a heuristic approach based ..."
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We construct new quantitative steganalyzers for steganographic techniques that hide data using LSB embedding in quantized DCT coefficients of a JPEG file. Two approaches are explored – changerate estimation using the maximum likelihood principle with a precover model and a heuristic approach based on minimizing a penaltyfunctional obtained from a combined analysis of the embedding operation and properties of natural images. The techniques are applied to Jsteg and its modified version called symmetric Jsteg. Experiments are used to compare the new methods with current state of the art.