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231
Mixed membership stochastic block models for relational data with application to proteinprotein interactions
 In Proceedings of the International Biometrics Society Annual Meeting
, 2006
"... We develop a model for examining data that consists of pairwise measurements, for example, presence or absence of links between pairs of objects. Examples include protein interactions and gene regulatory networks, collections of authorrecipient email, and social networks. Analyzing such data with p ..."
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Cited by 378 (52 self)
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We develop a model for examining data that consists of pairwise measurements, for example, presence or absence of links between pairs of objects. Examples include protein interactions and gene regulatory networks, collections of authorrecipient email, and social networks. Analyzing such data with probabilistic models requires special assumptions, since the usual independence or exchangeability assumptions no longer hold. We introduce a class of latent variable models for pairwise measurements: mixed membership stochastic blockmodels. Models in this class combine a global model of dense patches of connectivity (blockmodel) and a local model to instantiate nodespecific variability in the connections (mixed membership). We develop a general variational inference algorithm for fast approximate posterior inference. We demonstrate the advantages of mixed membership stochastic blockmodels with applications to social networks and protein interaction networks.
Learning to detect unseen object classes by betweenclass attribute transfer
 In CVPR
, 2009
"... We study the problem of object classification when training and test classes are disjoint, i.e. no training examples of the target classes are available. This setup has hardly been studied in computer vision research, but it is the rule rather than the exception, because the world contains tens of t ..."
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Cited by 363 (5 self)
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We study the problem of object classification when training and test classes are disjoint, i.e. no training examples of the target classes are available. This setup has hardly been studied in computer vision research, but it is the rule rather than the exception, because the world contains tens of thousands of different object classes and for only a very few of them image, collections have been formed and annotated with suitable class labels. In this paper, we tackle the problem by introducing attributebased classification. It performs object detection based on a humanspecified highlevel description of the target objects instead of training images. The description consists of arbitrary semantic attributes, like shape, color or even geographic information. Because such properties transcend the specific learning task at hand, they can be prelearned, e.g. from image datasets unrelated to the current task. Afterwards, new classes can be detected based on their attribute representation, without the need for a new training phase. In order to evaluate our method and to facilitate research in this area, we have assembled a new largescale dataset, “Animals with Attributes”, of over 30,000 animal images that match the 50 classes in Osherson’s classic table of how strongly humans associate 85 semantic attributes with animal classes. Our experiments show that by using an attribute layer it is indeed possible to build a learning object detection system that does not require any training images of the target classes. 1.
Topic and role discovery in social networks
 In IJCAI
, 2005
"... Previous work in social network analysis (SNA) has modeled the existence of links from one entity to another, but not the language content or topics on those links. We present the AuthorRecipientTopic (ART) model for social network analysis, which learns topic distributions based on the direction ..."
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Cited by 221 (15 self)
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Previous work in social network analysis (SNA) has modeled the existence of links from one entity to another, but not the language content or topics on those links. We present the AuthorRecipientTopic (ART) model for social network analysis, which learns topic distributions based on the directionsensitive messages sent between entities. The model builds on Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) and the AuthorTopic (AT) model, adding the key attribute that distribution over topics is conditioned distinctly on both the sender and recipient—steering the discovery of topics according to the relationships between people. We give results on both the Enron email corpus and a researcher’s email archive, providing evidence not only that clearly relevant topics are discovered, but that the ART model better predicts people’s roles. 1 Introduction and Related Work Social network analysis (SNA) is the study of mathematical models for interactions among people, organizations and groups. With the recent availability of large datasets of human
Church: A language for generative models
 In UAI
, 2008
"... Formal languages for probabilistic modeling enable reuse, modularity, and descriptive clarity, and can foster generic inference techniques. We introduce Church, a universal language for describing stochastic generative processes. Church is based on the Lisp model of lambda calculus, containing a pu ..."
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Cited by 141 (27 self)
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Formal languages for probabilistic modeling enable reuse, modularity, and descriptive clarity, and can foster generic inference techniques. We introduce Church, a universal language for describing stochastic generative processes. Church is based on the Lisp model of lambda calculus, containing a pure Lisp as its deterministic subset. The semantics of Church is defined in terms of evaluation histories and conditional distributions on such histories. Church also includes a novel language construct, the stochastic memoizer, which enables simple description of many complex nonparametric models. We illustrate language features through several examples, including: a generalized Bayes net in which parameters cluster over trials, infinite PCFGs, planning by inference, and various nonparametric clustering models. Finally, we show how to implement query on any Church program, exactly and approximately, using Monte Carlo techniques. 1
Nonparametric Latent Feature Models for Link Prediction
"... As the availability and importance of relational data—such as the friendships summarized on a social networking website—increases, it becomes increasingly important to have good models for such data. The kinds of latent structure that have been considered for use in predicting links in such networks ..."
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Cited by 106 (1 self)
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As the availability and importance of relational data—such as the friendships summarized on a social networking website—increases, it becomes increasingly important to have good models for such data. The kinds of latent structure that have been considered for use in predicting links in such networks have been relatively limited. In particular, the machine learning community has focused on latent class models, adapting Bayesian nonparametric methods to jointly infer how many latent classes there are while learning which entities belong to each class. We pursue a similar approach with a richer kind of latent variable—latent features—using a Bayesian nonparametric approach to simultaneously infer the number of features at the same time we learn which entities have each feature. Our model combines these inferred features with known covariates in order to perform link prediction. We demonstrate that the greater expressiveness of this approach allows us to improve performance on three datasets. 1
Modeling dyadic data with binary latent factors
 Neural Information Processing Systems
, 2008
"... We introduce binary matrix factorization, a novel model for unsupervised matrix decomposition. The decomposition is learned by fitting a nonparametric Bayesian probabilistic model with binary latent variables to a matrix of dyadic data. Unlike biclustering models, which assign each row or column t ..."
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Cited by 81 (17 self)
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We introduce binary matrix factorization, a novel model for unsupervised matrix decomposition. The decomposition is learned by fitting a nonparametric Bayesian probabilistic model with binary latent variables to a matrix of dyadic data. Unlike biclustering models, which assign each row or column to a single cluster based on a categorical hidden feature, our binary feature model reflects the prior belief that items and attributes can be associated with more than one latent cluster at a time. We provide simple learning and inference rules for this new model and show how to extend it to an infinite model in which the number of features is not a priori fixed but is allowed to grow with the size of the data. 1 Distributed representations for dyadic data One of the major goals of probabilistic unsupervised learning is to discover underlying or hidden structure in a dataset by using latent variables to describe a complex data generation process. In this paper we focus on dyadic data: our domains have two finite sets of objects/entities and observations are made on dyads (pairs with one element from each set). Examples include sparse matrices
Centerpiece subgraphs: Problem definition and fast solutions
 In KDD
, 2006
"... Given Q nodes in a social network (say, authorship network), how can we find the node/author that is the centerpiece, and has direct or indirect connections to all, or most of them? For example, this node could be the common advisor, or someone who started the research area that the Q nodes belong t ..."
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Cited by 77 (23 self)
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Given Q nodes in a social network (say, authorship network), how can we find the node/author that is the centerpiece, and has direct or indirect connections to all, or most of them? For example, this node could be the common advisor, or someone who started the research area that the Q nodes belong to. Isomorphic scenarios appear in law enforcement (find the mastermind criminal, connected to all current suspects), gene regulatory networks (find the protein that participates in pathways with all or most of the given Q proteins), viral marketing and many more. Connection subgraphs is an important first step, handling the case of Q=2 query nodes. Then, the connection subgraph algorithm finds the b intermediate nodes, that provide a good connection between the two original query nodes. Here we generalize the challenge in multiple dimensions: First, we allow more than two query nodes. Second, we allow a whole family of queries, ranging from ’OR ’ to ’AND’, with ’softAND ’ inbetween. Finally, we design and compare a fast approximation, and study the quality/speed tradeoff. We also present experiments on the DBLP dataset. The experiments confirm that our proposed method naturally deals with multisource queries and that the resulting subgraphs agree with our intuition. Wallclock timing results on the DBLP dataset show that our proposed approximation achieve good accuracy for about 6: 1 speedup. This material is based upon work supported by the
A ThreeWay Model for Collective Learning on MultiRelational Data
"... Relational learning is becoming increasingly important in many areas of application. Here, we present a novel approach to relational learning based on the factorization of a threeway tensor. We show that unlike other tensor approaches, our method is able to perform collective learning via the laten ..."
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Cited by 67 (15 self)
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Relational learning is becoming increasingly important in many areas of application. Here, we present a novel approach to relational learning based on the factorization of a threeway tensor. We show that unlike other tensor approaches, our method is able to perform collective learning via the latent components of the model and provide an efficient algorithm to compute the factorization. We substantiate our theoretical considerations regarding the collective learning capabilities of our model by the means of experiments on both a new dataset and a dataset commonly used in entity resolution. Furthermore, we show on common benchmark datasets that our approach achieves better or onpar results, if compared to current stateoftheart relational learning solutions, while it is significantly faster to compute. 1.
Stochastic relational models for discriminative link prediction
 Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems
, 2007
"... We introduce a Gaussian process (GP) framework, stochastic relational models (SRM), for learning social, physical, and other relational phenomena where interactions between entities are observed. The key idea is to model the stochastic structure of entity relationships (i.e., links) via a tensor int ..."
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Cited by 49 (18 self)
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We introduce a Gaussian process (GP) framework, stochastic relational models (SRM), for learning social, physical, and other relational phenomena where interactions between entities are observed. The key idea is to model the stochastic structure of entity relationships (i.e., links) via a tensor interaction of multiple GPs, each defined on one type of entities. These models in fact define a set of nonparametric priors on infinite dimensional tensor matrices, where each element represents a relationship between a tuple of entities. By maximizing the marginalized likelihood, information is exchanged between the participating GPs through the entire relational network, so that the dependency structure of links is messaged to the dependency of entities, reflected by the adapted GP kernels. The framework offers a discriminative approach to link prediction, namely, predicting the existences, strengths, or types of relationships based on the partially observed linkage network as well as the attributes of entities (if given). We discuss properties and variants of SRM and derive an efficient learning algorithm. Very encouraging experimental results are achieved on a toy problem and a usermovie preference link prediction task. In the end we discuss extensions of SRM to general relational learning tasks. 1