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Technological literacy learning with cumulative and stepwise integration of equations into electrical circuit diagrams
 IEEE Trans. on Educ
, 2012
"... Abstract—Technological literacy education involves the teaching of basic engineering principles and problem solving, including elementary electrical circuit analysis, to nonengineering students. Learning materials on circuit analysis typically rely on equations and schematic diagrams, which are oft ..."
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Abstract—Technological literacy education involves the teaching of basic engineering principles and problem solving, including elementary electrical circuit analysis, to nonengineering students. Learning materials on circuit analysis typically rely on equations and schematic diagrams, which are often unfamiliar to nonengineering students. The goal of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of the integration of equations into circuit diagrams on the learning of nonengineering undergraduate students. This experimental study compared three integration designs. In the cumulative integrated design, as each practice problem solution progressed, the equations were cumulatively integrated into the circuit diagram. In the stepwise integrated design, only those equations relevant to the present step of the problem were integrated into the circuit diagram; previously displayed equations were moved to an adjacent frame and recorded there. The nonintegrated design recorded all equations in the adjacent frame throughout each of the problems. Student learning was measured with a problemsolving neartransfer and fartransfer posttest. Students rated the helpfulness of the diagrams and difficulty of the instructional program. Results indicated that participants in the cumulative integrated condition scored significantly higher on the neartransfer posttest and marginally significantly higher on the fartransfer posttest compared to the stepwise and nonintegrated conditions. Findings indicate that circuit analysis instruction for nonengineering students should integrate equations into circuit diagrams in a cumulative fashion so as to avoid the splitattention effect for both the previously displayed equations as well as the equations for the present problem step. Index Terms—Diagramequation integration, electrical circuit analysis, spatial contiguity, technological literacy education.
Teaching with concrete and abstract visual representations: effects on students’ problem solving, problem representations, and learning perceptions
 Journal of Educational Psychology
, 2011
"... In 3 experiments, we examined the effects of using concrete and/or abstract visual problem representations during instruction on students ’ problemsolving practice, near transfer, problem representations, and learning perceptions. In Experiments 1 and 2, novice students learned about electrical ci ..."
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Cited by 6 (1 self)
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In 3 experiments, we examined the effects of using concrete and/or abstract visual problem representations during instruction on students ’ problemsolving practice, near transfer, problem representations, and learning perceptions. In Experiments 1 and 2, novice students learned about electrical circuit analysis
2009b. Precollege electrical engineering instruction: Do abstract or contextualized representations promote better learning
 In Proceedings of the IEEE/ASEE Frontiers in Education Conference
"... Abstract Precollege students were randomly assigned to learn about electrical circuit analysis with an instructional program that included two problem solving practice conditions. In the first condition, students learned to solve parallel circuit problems that were contextualized around real elect ..."
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Abstract Precollege students were randomly assigned to learn about electrical circuit analysis with an instructional program that included two problem solving practice conditions. In the first condition, students learned to solve parallel circuit problems that were contextualized around real electrical devices and represented with realistic diagrams. In the second condition, students learned to solve the same problems except that they were decontextualized and represented with abstract diagrams. To measure learning, students were given near and far transfer problem solving tests. In addition, students ’ learning perceptions were measured using a programrating survey that included three subscales: overall program usefulness, problem representation usefulness, and perceived cognitive load. Students who learned with abstract problems produced higher scores on the near transfer test and made better problem representations during problem solving than those who learned with contextualized problems. The contextualized group gave marginally higher ratings for the program representation usefulness. The findings suggest that abstract electrical circuit representations promote better learning because they facilitate thinking about a variety of problem contexts.
Introductory circuit analysis learning from abstract and contextualized circuit representations: Effects of diagram labels
 IEEE Trans. Educ., in print
"... engineering symbols. They are also often unaccustomed to instructional materials consisting of a combination of text, diagrams, and equations. This raises the question of whether instruction on elementary electrical circuit analysis for novice learners should employ contextualized representations ..."
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engineering symbols. They are also often unaccustomed to instructional materials consisting of a combination of text, diagrams, and equations. This raises the question of whether instruction on elementary electrical circuit analysis for novice learners should employ contextualized representations of the circuits with familiar components, such as batteries, or employ abstract representations with the abstract engineering terms and symbols. A further question is if text labels in the circuit diagrams would aid these learners. This study examined these research questions with a “2 3 ” experor contextualized) were considered under three types of diagram labeling (no labels, static labels, or interactive labels). The design was implemented in an instructional module on elementary circuit analysis for novice learners. Results indicated that abstract representations led to higher near and fartransfer posttest scores, and that interactive (studentgenerated) labeling resulted in higher neartransfer scores than either the nolabels or staticlabels conditions. These findings suggest that abstract representations promote the development of deep, transferrable knowledge and that generative methods of integration, such as interactive diagram labeling, can facilitate learning with multiple external representations. Index Terms—Circuit analysis instruction, circuit diagram, diagram label, electrical circuit analysis, multiple external representations, novice learner.
TE2013000393 Final
"... Abstract—Learning the analysis of electrical circuits represented by circuit diagrams is often challenging for novice students. An open research question in electrical circuit analysis is whether color coding of the mathematical symbols (variables) that denote electrical quantities can improve circu ..."
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Abstract—Learning the analysis of electrical circuits represented by circuit diagrams is often challenging for novice students. An open research question in electrical circuit analysis is whether color coding of the mathematical symbols (variables) that denote electrical quantities can improve circuit analysis learning. The present study compared two groups of high school students undergoing their first introductory learning of electrical circuit analysis. One group learned with circuit variables in black font. The other group learned with colored circuit variables, with blue font indicating variables related to voltage, red font indicating those related to current, and black font indicating those related to resistance. The color group achieved significantly higher posttest scores, gave higher ratings for liking the instruction and finding it helpful, and had lower ratings of cognitive load than the blackfont group. These results indicate that color coding of the notations for quantities in electrical circuit diagrams aids the circuit analysis learning of novice students. Index Terms—Circuit diagram, font color, electrical circuit analysis, multiple representations, novice learners I.
1 Student Perceptions of Technological Literacy Learning with Cumulative and Stepwise Integration of Equations into Engineering Diagrams
"... Teaching basic engineering principles and problem solving with equations and schematic diagrams to nonengineering students is a basic goal of technological literacy education. The goals of this experimental study were to investigate the effects of the integration of equations into diagrams on the e ..."
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Teaching basic engineering principles and problem solving with equations and schematic diagrams to nonengineering students is a basic goal of technological literacy education. The goals of this experimental study were to investigate the effects of the integration of equations into diagrams on the engineering learning and learning perceptions of nonengineering undergraduate students. Three integration designs were compared: cumulative integration where equations were cumulatively integrated into the circuit diagram, stepwise integration where only the equations relevant to the present step of the problem were integrated into the circuit diagram, and nonintegrated presentation where all equations were displayed in an adjacent frame. Student learning was measured with a problemsolving neartransfer and fartransfer posttest (and reported in detail in a recent article). This paper focuses on the student perceptions of the helpfulness of the diagrams and difficulty of the instructional program and the openended student feedback. Results indicated that students in the cumulative integrated condition rated the diagrams significantly more positively and significantly more frequently expressed liking of the engineering domain in the openended feedback than students in the nonintegrated condition. Overall, the findings of this study indicate that engineering instruction for nonengineering students should integrate equations into diagrams in a cumulative fashion so as to avoid the splitattention effect and frustrations due to mapping between diagrams and separate equation displays. 3
moderating effects
"... Supporting multimedia learning with visual signalling and animated pedagogical agent: ..."
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Supporting multimedia learning with visual signalling and animated pedagogical agent:
dgu e, A
"... SA he e ntextualized representations during computerbased learning of engineering. d le d di 2 (n er tr gro ment of deep, transferrable knowledge and that verbal guidance denoting correspondences among representations can facilitate learning when less effective representational formats are utilize ..."
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SA he e ntextualized representations during computerbased learning of engineering. d le d di 2 (n er tr gro ment of deep, transferrable knowledge and that verbal guidance denoting correspondences among representations can facilitate learning when less effective representational formats are utilized. techno ing en ons (M d learn Althou
AC 2011344: EFFECTS OF VISUAL SIGNALING ON PRECOLLEGE STUDENTS ’ ENGINEERING LEARNING PERFORMANCE AND ATTI TUDES: PEER VERSUS ADULT PEDAGOGICAL AGENTS VERSUS AR ROW
"... a member of the ASEE and a senior member of the ACM and the IEEE. Address: School of Electrical, ..."
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a member of the ASEE and a senior member of the ACM and the IEEE. Address: School of Electrical,