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116
Probabilistic Latent Semantic Indexing
, 1999
"... Probabilistic Latent Semantic Indexing is a novel approach to automated document indexing which is based on a statistical latent class model for factor analysis of count data. Fitted from a training corpus of text documents by a generalization of the Expectation Maximization algorithm, the utilized ..."
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Cited by 1207 (11 self)
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Probabilistic Latent Semantic Indexing is a novel approach to automated document indexing which is based on a statistical latent class model for factor analysis of count data. Fitted from a training corpus of text documents by a generalization of the Expectation Maximization algorithm, the utilized model is able to deal with domainspecific synonymy as well as with polysemous words. In contrast to standard Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) by Singular Value Decomposition, the probabilistic variant has a solid statistical foundation and defines a proper generative data model. Retrieval experiments on a number of test collections indicate substantial performance gains over direct term matching methodsaswell as over LSI. In particular, the combination of models with different dimensionalities has proven to be advantageous.
Quantization
 IEEE TRANS. INFORM. THEORY
, 1998
"... The history of the theory and practice of quantization dates to 1948, although similar ideas had appeared in the literature as long ago as 1898. The fundamental role of quantization in modulation and analogtodigital conversion was first recognized during the early development of pulsecode modula ..."
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Cited by 877 (12 self)
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The history of the theory and practice of quantization dates to 1948, although similar ideas had appeared in the literature as long ago as 1898. The fundamental role of quantization in modulation and analogtodigital conversion was first recognized during the early development of pulsecode modulation systems, especially in the 1948 paper of Oliver, Pierce, and Shannon. Also in 1948, Bennett published the first highresolution analysis of quantization and an exact analysis of quantization noise for Gaussian processes, and Shannon published the beginnings of rate distortion theory, which would provide a theory for quantization as analogtodigital conversion and as data compression. Beginning with these three papers of fifty years ago, we trace the history of quantization from its origins through this decade, and we survey the fundamentals of the theory and many of the popular and promising techniques for quantization.
Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis
 In Proc. of Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, UAI’99
, 1999
"... Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis is a novel statistical technique for the analysis of twomode and cooccurrence data, which has applications in information retrieval and filtering, natural language processing, machine learning from text, and in related areas. Compared to standard Latent Sema ..."
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Cited by 760 (9 self)
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Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis is a novel statistical technique for the analysis of twomode and cooccurrence data, which has applications in information retrieval and filtering, natural language processing, machine learning from text, and in related areas. Compared to standard Latent Semantic Analysis which stems from linear algebra and performs a Singular Value Decomposition of cooccurrence tables, the proposed method is based on a mixture decomposition derived from a latent class model. This results in a more principled approach which has a solid foundation in statistics. In order to avoid overfitting, we propose a widely applicable generalization of maximum likelihood model fitting by tempered EM. Our approach yields substantial and consistent improvements over Latent Semantic Analysis in a number of experiments.
Unsupervised Learning by Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis
 Machine Learning
, 2001
"... Abstract. This paper presents a novel statistical method for factor analysis of binary and count data which is closely related to a technique known as Latent Semantic Analysis. In contrast to the latter method which stems from linear algebra and performs a Singular Value Decomposition of cooccurren ..."
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Cited by 612 (4 self)
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Abstract. This paper presents a novel statistical method for factor analysis of binary and count data which is closely related to a technique known as Latent Semantic Analysis. In contrast to the latter method which stems from linear algebra and performs a Singular Value Decomposition of cooccurrence tables, the proposed technique uses a generative latent class model to perform a probabilistic mixture decomposition. This results in a more principled approach with a solid foundation in statistical inference. More precisely, we propose to make use of a temperature controlled version of the Expectation Maximization algorithm for model fitting, which has shown excellent performance in practice. Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis has many applications, most prominently in information retrieval, natural language processing, machine learning from text, and in related areas. The paper presents perplexity results for different types of text and linguistic data collections and discusses an application in automated document indexing. The experiments indicate substantial and consistent improvements of the probabilistic method over standard Latent Semantic Analysis.
Deterministic Annealing for Clustering, Compression, Classification, Regression, and Related Optimization Problems
 Proceedings of the IEEE
, 1998
"... this paper. Let us place it within the neural network perspective, and particularly that of learning. The area of neural networks has greatly benefited from its unique position at the crossroads of several diverse scientific and engineering disciplines including statistics and probability theory, ph ..."
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Cited by 318 (20 self)
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this paper. Let us place it within the neural network perspective, and particularly that of learning. The area of neural networks has greatly benefited from its unique position at the crossroads of several diverse scientific and engineering disciplines including statistics and probability theory, physics, biology, control and signal processing, information theory, complexity theory, and psychology (see [45]). Neural networks have provided a fertile soil for the infusion (and occasionally confusion) of ideas, as well as a meeting ground for comparing viewpoints, sharing tools, and renovating approaches. It is within the illdefined boundaries of the field of neural networks that researchers in traditionally distant fields have come to the realization that they have been attacking fundamentally similar optimization problems.
Twister: A runtime for iterative MapReduce
 In The First International Workshop on MapReduce and its Applications
, 2010
"... MapReduce programming model has simplified the implementation of many data parallel applications. The simplicity of the programming model and the quality of services provided by many implementations of MapReduce attract a lot of enthusiasm among distributed computing communities. From the years of e ..."
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Cited by 159 (13 self)
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MapReduce programming model has simplified the implementation of many data parallel applications. The simplicity of the programming model and the quality of services provided by many implementations of MapReduce attract a lot of enthusiasm among distributed computing communities. From the years of experience in applying MapReduce to various scientific applications we identified a set of extensions to the programming model and improvements to its architecture that will expand the applicability of MapReduce to more classes of applications. In this paper, we present the programming model and the architecture of Twister an enhanced MapReduce runtime that supports iterative MapReduce computations efficiently. We also show performance comparisons of Twister with other similar runtimes such as Hadoop and DryadLINQ for large scale data parallel applications.
Robust clustering methods: a unified view
 IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
, 1997
"... Abstract—Clustering methods need to be robust if they are to be useful in practice. In this paper, we analyze several popular robust clustering methods and show that they have much in common. We also establish a connection between fuzzy set theory and robust statistics and point out the similarities ..."
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Cited by 111 (8 self)
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Abstract—Clustering methods need to be robust if they are to be useful in practice. In this paper, we analyze several popular robust clustering methods and show that they have much in common. We also establish a connection between fuzzy set theory and robust statistics and point out the similarities between robust clustering methods and statistical methods such as the weighted leastsquares (LS) technique, the M estimator, the minimum volume ellipsoid (MVE) algorithm, cooperative robust estimation (CRE), minimization of probability of randomness (MINPRAN), and the epsilon contamination model. By gleaning the common principles upon which the methods proposed in the literature are based, we arrive at a unified view of robust clustering methods. We define several general concepts that are useful in robust clustering, state the robust clustering problem in terms of the defined concepts, and propose generic algorithms and guidelines for clustering noisy data. We also discuss why the generalized Hough transform is a suboptimal solution to the robust clustering problem. Index Terms — Clustering validity, fuzzy clustering, robust methods.
Semisupervised Learning by Entropy Minimization
"... We consider the semisupervised learning problem, where a decision rule is to be learned from labeled and unlabeled data. In this framework, we motivate minimum entropy regularization, which enables to incorporate unlabeled data in the standard supervised learning. This regularizer can be applied to ..."
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Cited by 101 (2 self)
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We consider the semisupervised learning problem, where a decision rule is to be learned from labeled and unlabeled data. In this framework, we motivate minimum entropy regularization, which enables to incorporate unlabeled data in the standard supervised learning. This regularizer can be applied to any model of posterior probabilities. Our approach provides a new motivation for some existing semisupervised learning algorithms which are particular or limiting instances of minimum entropy regularization. A series of experiments illustrates that the proposed solution benefits from unlabeled data. The method challenges mixture models when the data are sampled from the distribution class spanned by the generative model. The performances are definitely in favor of minimum entropy regularization when generative models are misspecified, and the weighting of unlabeled data provides robustness to the violation of the “cluster assumption”. Finally, we also illustrate that the method can be far superior to manifold learning in high dimension spaces, and also when the manifolds are generated by moving examples along the discriminating directions.
MapReduce for Data Intensive Scientific Analysis
 Fourth IEEE International Conference on eScience
"... Most scientific data analyses comprise analyzing voluminous data collected from various instruments. Efficient parallel/concurrent algorithms and frameworks are the key to meeting the scalability and performance requirements entailed in such scientific data analyses. The recently introduced MapReduc ..."
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Cited by 86 (13 self)
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Most scientific data analyses comprise analyzing voluminous data collected from various instruments. Efficient parallel/concurrent algorithms and frameworks are the key to meeting the scalability and performance requirements entailed in such scientific data analyses. The recently introduced MapReduce technique has gained a lot of attention from the scientific community for its applicability in large parallel data analyses. Although there are many evaluations of the MapReduce technique using large textual data collections, there have been only a few evaluations for scientific data analyses. The goals of this paper are twofold. First, we present our experience in applying the MapReduce technique for two scientific data analyses: (i) High Energy Physics data analyses; (ii) Kmeans clustering. Second, we present CGLMapReduce, a stream based MapReduce implementation and compare its performance with Hadoop. 1.
Vector Quantization with Complexity Costs
, 1993
"... Vector quantization is a data compression method where a set of data points is encoded by a reduced set of reference vectors, the codebook. We discuss a vector quantization strategy which jointly optimizes distortion errors and the codebook complexity, thereby, determining the size of the codebook. ..."
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Cited by 63 (20 self)
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Vector quantization is a data compression method where a set of data points is encoded by a reduced set of reference vectors, the codebook. We discuss a vector quantization strategy which jointly optimizes distortion errors and the codebook complexity, thereby, determining the size of the codebook. A maximum entropy estimation of the cost function yields an optimal number of reference vectors, their positions and their assignment probabilities. The dependence of the codebook density on the data density for different complexity functions is investigated in the limit of asymptotic quantization levels. How different complexity measures influence the efficiency of vector quantizers is studied for the task of image compression, i.e., we quantize the wavelet coefficients of gray level images and measure the reconstruction error. Our approach establishes a unifying framework for different quantization methods like Kmeans clustering and its fuzzy version, entropy constrained vector quantizati...