Results

**1 - 3**of**3**### NICE: Non-linear Independent Components Estimation

"... We propose a deep learning framework for modeling complex high-dimensional densities via Non-linear Independent Component Estimation (NICE). It is based on the idea that a good representation is one in which the data has a distribution that is easy to model. For this purpose, a non-linear determinis ..."

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We propose a deep learning framework for modeling complex high-dimensional densities via Non-linear Independent Component Estimation (NICE). It is based on the idea that a good representation is one in which the data has a distribution that is easy to model. For this purpose, a non-linear deterministic transformation of the data is learned that maps it to a latent space so as to make the transformed data conform to a factorized distribution, i.e., resulting in independent latent variables. We parametrize this transformation so that computing the determinant of the Jacobian and inverse Jacobian is trivial, yet we maintain the ability to learn complex non-linear transformations, via a composition of simple building blocks, each based on a deep neural network. The training criterion is simply the exact log-likelihood, which is tractable, and unbiased ancestral sampling is also easy. We show that this approach yields good generative models on four image datasets and can be used for inpainting. 1

### Harmonic Exponential Families on Manifolds

"... Abstract In a range of fields including the geosciences, molecular biology, robotics and computer vision, one encounters problems that involve random variables on manifolds. Currently, there is a lack of flexible probabilistic models on manifolds that are fast and easy to train. We define an extrem ..."

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Abstract In a range of fields including the geosciences, molecular biology, robotics and computer vision, one encounters problems that involve random variables on manifolds. Currently, there is a lack of flexible probabilistic models on manifolds that are fast and easy to train. We define an extremely flexible class of exponential family distributions on manifolds such as the torus, sphere, and rotation groups, and show that for these distributions the gradient of the log-likelihood can be computed efficiently using a non-commutative generalization of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). We discuss applications to Bayesian camera motion estimation (where harmonic exponential families serve as conjugate priors), and modelling of the spatial distribution of earthquakes on the surface of the earth. Our experimental results show that harmonic densities yield a significantly higher likelihood than the best competing method, while being orders of magnitude faster to train.

### Exploiting Cyclic Symmetry in Convolutional Neural Networks Koray Kavukcuoglu

"... Abstract Many classes of images exhibit rotational symmetry. Convolutional neural networks are sometimes trained using data augmentation to exploit this, but they are still required to learn the rotation equivariance properties from the data. Encoding these properties into the network architecture, ..."

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Abstract Many classes of images exhibit rotational symmetry. Convolutional neural networks are sometimes trained using data augmentation to exploit this, but they are still required to learn the rotation equivariance properties from the data. Encoding these properties into the network architecture, as we are already used to doing for translation equivariance by using convolutional layers, could result in a more efficient use of the parameter budget by relieving the model from learning them. We introduce four operations which can be inserted into neural network models as layers, and which can be combined to make these models partially equivariant to rotations. They also enable parameter sharing across different orientations. We evaluate the effect of these architectural modifications on three datasets which exhibit rotational symmetry and demonstrate improved performance with smaller models.