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Blackbox conformance testing for realtime systems
 In 11th International SPIN Workshop on Model Checking of Software (SPIN’04), volume 2989 of LNCS
, 2004
"... We propose a new framework for blackbox conformance testing of realtime systems. The framework is based on the model of partiallyobservable, nondeterministic timed automata. We argue that partial observability and nondeterminism are essential features for ease of modeling, expressiveness and im ..."
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We propose a new framework for blackbox conformance testing of realtime systems. The framework is based on the model of partiallyobservable, nondeterministic timed automata. We argue that partial observability and nondeterminism are essential features for ease of modeling, expressiveness and implementability. The framework allows the user to define, through appropriate modeling, assumptions on the environment of the system under test (SUT) as well as on the interface between the tester and the SUT. We consider two types of tests: analogclock tests and digitalclock tests. Our algorithm to generate analogclock tests is based on an onthefly determinization of the specification automaton during the execution of the test, which in turn relies on reachability computations. The latter can sometimes be costly, thus problematic, since the tester must quickly react to the actions of the system under test. Therefore, we provide techniques which allow analogclock testers to be represented as deterministic timed automata, thus minimizing the reaction time to a simple state jump. We provide algorithms for static or onthefly generation of digitalclock tests. These tests measure time only with finiteprecision, digital clocks, another essential condition for implementability. We also propose a technique for location, edge and state coverage of the specification, by reducing the problem to covering a symbolic reachability graph. This avoids having to generate too many tests. We report on a prototype tool TTG and two case studies: a lighting device and the Bounded Retransmission Protocol. Experimental results obtained by applying TTG on the Bounded Retransmission Protocol show that only a few tests suffice to cover thousands of reachable symbolic states in the specification.
Modeling, Verification and Testing using Timed and Hybrid Automata
"... 1.2 Modeling with timed and hybrid automata................... 3 ..."
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1.2 Modeling with timed and hybrid automata................... 3
Observable Form of a Timed Finite State Machine
"... Abstract—This paper is devoted to the problem of an observable form for a given Timed Finite State Machine. This problem, together with the problem of the number of states in the observable form, has theoretical value, since it shows the way to build an observable form, and answers the question, doe ..."
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Abstract—This paper is devoted to the problem of an observable form for a given Timed Finite State Machine. This problem, together with the problem of the number of states in the observable form, has theoretical value, since it shows the way to build an observable form, and answers the question, does an observable form exist for any TFSM. Also it has a practical use in testing, since Finite State Machine methods of test generation rely on the fact that specification of a system is an observable FSM and those methods are intended to be applied for TFSMs. Keywordsobservable form; nondeterministic Timed Finite State Machine;