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392
Conditional random fields: Probabilistic models for segmenting and labeling sequence data
, 2001
"... We present conditional random fields, a framework for building probabilistic models to segment and label sequence data. Conditional random fields offer several advantages over hidden Markov models and stochastic grammars for such tasks, including the ability to relax strong independence assumptions ..."
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Cited by 3485 (85 self)
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We present conditional random fields, a framework for building probabilistic models to segment and label sequence data. Conditional random fields offer several advantages over hidden Markov models and stochastic grammars for such tasks, including the ability to relax strong independence assumptions made in those models. Conditional random fields also avoid a fundamental limitation of maximum entropy Markov models (MEMMs) and other discriminative Markov models based on directed graphical models, which can be biased towards states with few successor states. We present iterative parameter estimation algorithms for conditional random fields and compare the performance of the resulting models to HMMs and MEMMs on synthetic and naturallanguage data. 1.
Gradientbased learning applied to document recognition
 Proceedings of the IEEE
, 1998
"... Multilayer neural networks trained with the backpropagation algorithm constitute the best example of a successful gradientbased learning technique. Given an appropriate network architecture, gradientbased learning algorithms can be used to synthesize a complex decision surface that can classify hi ..."
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Cited by 1533 (84 self)
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Multilayer neural networks trained with the backpropagation algorithm constitute the best example of a successful gradientbased learning technique. Given an appropriate network architecture, gradientbased learning algorithms can be used to synthesize a complex decision surface that can classify highdimensional patterns, such as handwritten characters, with minimal preprocessing. This paper reviews various methods applied to handwritten character recognition and compares them on a standard handwritten digit recognition task. Convolutional neural networks, which are specifically designed to deal with the variability of two dimensional (2D) shapes, are shown to outperform all other techniques. Reallife document recognition systems are composed of multiple modules including field extraction, segmentation, recognition, and language modeling. A new learning paradigm, called graph transformer networks (GTN’s), allows such multimodule systems to be trained globally using gradientbased methods so as to minimize an overall performance measure. Two systems for online handwriting recognition are described. Experiments demonstrate the advantage of global training, and the flexibility of graph transformer networks. A graph transformer network for reading a bank check is also described. It uses convolutional neural network character recognizers combined with global training techniques to provide record accuracy on business and personal checks. It is deployed commercially and reads several million checks per day.
Dynamic Bayesian Networks: Representation, Inference and Learning
, 2002
"... Modelling sequential data is important in many areas of science and engineering. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) and Kalman filter models (KFMs) are popular for this because they are simple and flexible. For example, HMMs have been used for speech recognition and biosequence analysis, and KFMs have bee ..."
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Cited by 770 (3 self)
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Modelling sequential data is important in many areas of science and engineering. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) and Kalman filter models (KFMs) are popular for this because they are simple and flexible. For example, HMMs have been used for speech recognition and biosequence analysis, and KFMs have been used for problems ranging from tracking planes and missiles to predicting the economy. However, HMMs
and KFMs are limited in their “expressive power”. Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs) generalize HMMs by allowing the state space to be represented in factored form, instead of as a single discrete random variable. DBNs generalize KFMs by allowing arbitrary probability distributions, not just (unimodal) linearGaussian. In this thesis, I will discuss how to represent many different kinds of models as DBNs, how to perform exact and approximate inference in DBNs, and how to learn DBN models from sequential data.
In particular, the main novel technical contributions of this thesis are as follows: a way of representing
Hierarchical HMMs as DBNs, which enables inference to be done in O(T) time instead of O(T 3), where T is the length of the sequence; an exact smoothing algorithm that takes O(log T) space instead of O(T); a simple way of using the junction tree algorithm for online inference in DBNs; new complexity bounds on exact online inference in DBNs; a new deterministic approximate inference algorithm called factored frontier; an analysis of the relationship between the BK algorithm and loopy belief propagation; a way of
applying RaoBlackwellised particle filtering to DBNs in general, and the SLAM (simultaneous localization
and mapping) problem in particular; a way of extending the structural EM algorithm to DBNs; and a variety of different applications of DBNs. However, perhaps the main value of the thesis is its catholic presentation of the field of sequential data modelling.
Weighted finitestate transducers in speech recognition
 COMPUTER SPEECH & LANGUAGE
, 2002
"... We survey the use of weighted finitestate transducers (WFSTs) in speech recognition. We show that WFSTs provide a common and natural representation for hidden Markov models (HMMs), contextdependency, pronunciation dictionaries, grammars, and alternative recognition outputs. Furthermore, general tr ..."
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Cited by 211 (5 self)
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We survey the use of weighted finitestate transducers (WFSTs) in speech recognition. We show that WFSTs provide a common and natural representation for hidden Markov models (HMMs), contextdependency, pronunciation dictionaries, grammars, and alternative recognition outputs. Furthermore, general transducer operations combine these representations flexibly and efficiently. Weighted determinization and minimization algorithms optimize their time and space requirements, and a weight pushing algorithm distributes the weights along the paths of a weighted transducer optimally for speech recognition. As an example, we describe a North American Business News (NAB) recognition system built using these techniques that combines the HMMs, full crossword triphones, a lexicon of 40 000 words, and a large trigram grammar into a single weighted transducer that is only somewhat larger than the trigram word grammar and that runs NAB in realtime on a very simple decoder. In another example, we show that the same techniques can be used to optimize lattices for secondpass recognition. In a third example, we show how general automata operations can be used to assemble lattices from different recognizers to improve recognition performance.
Minimum Bayesrisk decoding for statistical machine translation
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF HLTNAACL
, 2004
"... We present Minimum BayesRisk (MBR) decoding for statistical machine translation. This statistical approach aims to minimize expected loss of translation errors under loss functions that measure translation performance. We describe a hierarchy of loss functions that incorporate different levels of l ..."
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Cited by 179 (16 self)
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We present Minimum BayesRisk (MBR) decoding for statistical machine translation. This statistical approach aims to minimize expected loss of translation errors under loss functions that measure translation performance. We describe a hierarchy of loss functions that incorporate different levels of linguistic information from word strings, wordtoword alignments from an MT system, and syntactic structure from parsetrees of source and target language sentences. We report the performance of the MBR decoders on a ChinesetoEnglish translation task. Our results show that MBR decoding can be used to tune statistical MT performance for specific loss functions.
Markovian Models for Sequential Data
, 1996
"... Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are statistical models of sequential data that have been used successfully in many machine learning applications, especially for speech recognition. Furthermore, in the last few years, many new and promising probabilistic models related to HMMs have been proposed. We firs ..."
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Cited by 119 (2 self)
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Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are statistical models of sequential data that have been used successfully in many machine learning applications, especially for speech recognition. Furthermore, in the last few years, many new and promising probabilistic models related to HMMs have been proposed. We first summarize the basics of HMMs, and then review several recent related learning algorithms and extensions of HMMs, including in particular hybrids of HMMs with artificial neural networks, InputOutput HMMs (which are conditional HMMs using neural networks to compute probabilities), weighted transducers, variablelength Markov models and Markov switching statespace models. Finally, we discuss some of the challenges of future research in this very active area. 1 Introduction Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are statistical models of sequential data that have been used successfully in many applications in artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, speech recognition, and modeling of biological ...
Sphinx4: A Flexible Open Source Framework for Speech Recognition
, 2004
"... Sphinx4 is a flexible, modular and pluggable framework to help foster new innovations in the core research of hidden Markov model (HMM) recognition systems. The design of Sphinx4 is based on patterns that have emerged from the design of past systems as well as new requirements based on areas that ..."
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Cited by 119 (0 self)
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Sphinx4 is a flexible, modular and pluggable framework to help foster new innovations in the core research of hidden Markov model (HMM) recognition systems. The design of Sphinx4 is based on patterns that have emerged from the design of past systems as well as new requirements based on areas that researchers currently want to explore. To exercise this framework, and to provide researchers with a ”researchready” system, Sphinx4 also includes several implementations of both simple and stateoftheart techniques. The framework and the implementations are all freely available via open source.
OpenFst: A general and efficient weighted finitestate transducer library. Implementation and Application of Automata
, 2007
"... Abstract. We describe OpenFst, an opensource library for weighted finitestate transducers (WFSTs). OpenFst consists of a C++ template library with efficient WFST representations and over twentyfive operations for constructing, combining, optimizing, and searching them. At the shellcommand level, ..."
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Cited by 112 (12 self)
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Abstract. We describe OpenFst, an opensource library for weighted finitestate transducers (WFSTs). OpenFst consists of a C++ template library with efficient WFST representations and over twentyfive operations for constructing, combining, optimizing, and searching them. At the shellcommand level, there are corresponding transducer file representations and programs that operate on them. OpenFst is designed to be both very efficient in time and space and to scale to very large problems. This library has key applications speech, image, and natural language processing, pattern and string matching, and machine learning. We give an overview of the library, examples of its use, details of its design that allow customizing the labels, states, and weights and the lazy evaluation of many of its operations. Further information and a download of the OpenFst library can be obtained from
The Design Principles of a Weighted FiniteState Transducer Library
, 2002
"... We describe the algorithmic and software design principles of an objectoriented library for weighted finitestate transducers. By taking advantage of the theory of rational power series, we were able to achieve high degrees of generality, modularity and irredundancy, while attaining competitive eff ..."
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Cited by 110 (20 self)
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We describe the algorithmic and software design principles of an objectoriented library for weighted finitestate transducers. By taking advantage of the theory of rational power series, we were able to achieve high degrees of generality, modularity and irredundancy, while attaining competitive efficiency in demanding speech processing applications involving weighted automata of more than 10 7 states and transitions. Besides its mathematical foundation, the design also draws from important ideas in algorithm design and programming languages: dynamic programming and shortestpaths algorithms over general semirings, objectoriented programming, lazy evaluation and memoization.
Parsing InsideOut
, 1998
"... Probabilistic ContextFree Grammars (PCFGs) and variations on them have recently become some of the most common formalisms for parsing. It is common with PCFGs to compute the inside and outside probabilities. When these probabilities are multiplied together and normalized, they produce the probabili ..."
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Cited by 100 (2 self)
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Probabilistic ContextFree Grammars (PCFGs) and variations on them have recently become some of the most common formalisms for parsing. It is common with PCFGs to compute the inside and outside probabilities. When these probabilities are multiplied together and normalized, they produce the probability that any given nonterminal covers any piece of the input sentence. The traditional use of these probabilities is to improve the probabilities of grammar rules. In this thesis we show that these values are useful for solving many other problems in Statistical Natural Language Processing. We give a framework for describing parsers. The framework generalizes the inside and outside values to semirings. It makes it easy to describe parsers that compute a wide variety of interesting quantities, including the inside and outside probabilities, as well as related quantities such as Viterbi probabilities and nbest lists. We also present three novel uses for the inside and outside probabilities. T...