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Online Testing of Realtime Systems using UPPAAL
 INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON FORMAL APPROACHES TO TESTING OF SOFTWARE. COLOCATED WITH IEEE CONFERENCE ON AUTOMATES SOFTWARE ENGINEERING 2004
, 2004
"... This chapter presents principles and techniques for modelbased blackbox conformance testing of realtime systems using the Uppaal modelchecking toolsuite. The basis for testing is given as a network of concurrent timed automata specified by the test engineer. Relativized input/output conformance ..."
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Cited by 71 (10 self)
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This chapter presents principles and techniques for modelbased blackbox conformance testing of realtime systems using the Uppaal modelchecking toolsuite. The basis for testing is given as a network of concurrent timed automata specified by the test engineer. Relativized input/output conformance serves as the notion of implementation correctness, essentially timed trace inclusion taking environment assumptions into account. Test cases can be generated offline and later executed, or they can be generated and executed online. For both approaches this chapter discusses how to specify test objectives, derive test sequences, apply these to the system under test, and assign a verdict.
Model Based Testing with Labelled Transition Systems
, 2008
"... Model based testing is one of the promising technologies to meet the challenges imposed on software testing. In model based testing an implementation under test is tested for compliance with a model that describes the required behaviour of the implementation. This tutorial chapter describes a model ..."
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Cited by 61 (2 self)
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Model based testing is one of the promising technologies to meet the challenges imposed on software testing. In model based testing an implementation under test is tested for compliance with a model that describes the required behaviour of the implementation. This tutorial chapter describes a model based testing theory where models are expressed as labelled transition systems, and compliance is defined with the ‘ioco’ implementation relation. The iocotesting theory, on the one hand, provides a sound and welldefined foundation for labelled transition system testing, having its roots in the theoretical area of testing equivalences and refusal testing. On the other hand, it has proved to be a practical basis for several model based test generation tools and applications. Definitions, underlying assumptions, an algorithm, properties, and several examples of the iocotesting theory are discussed, involving specifications, implementations, tests, the ioco implementation relation and some of its variants, a test generation algorithm, and the soundness and exhaustiveness of this algorithm.
Monitoring temporal properties of continuous signals
 In: Proceedings of FORMATSFTRTFT. Volume 3253 of LNCS
, 2004
"... Abstract. In this paper we introduce a variant of temporal logic tailored for specifying desired properties of continuous signals. The logic is based on a bounded subset of the realtime logic MITL, augmented with a static mapping from continuous domains into propositions. From formulae in this logi ..."
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Cited by 60 (6 self)
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Abstract. In this paper we introduce a variant of temporal logic tailored for specifying desired properties of continuous signals. The logic is based on a bounded subset of the realtime logic MITL, augmented with a static mapping from continuous domains into propositions. From formulae in this logic we create automatically property monitors that can check whether a given signal of bounded length and finite variability satisfies the property. A prototype implementation of this procedure was used to check properties of simulation traces generated by Matlab/Simulink. 1
Testing realtime embedded software using uppaaltron  an industrial case study
 In Proc. of the 5th ACM International Conference on Embedded Software, 2005. [LPY97] [LT88] [Tre96] [Vil05
, 1997
"... UPPAALTRON is a new tool for model based online blackbox conformance testing of realtime embedded systems specified as timed automata. In this paper we present our experiences in applying our tool and technique on an industrial case study. We conclude that the tool and technique is applicable to ..."
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Cited by 40 (3 self)
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UPPAALTRON is a new tool for model based online blackbox conformance testing of realtime embedded systems specified as timed automata. In this paper we present our experiences in applying our tool and technique on an industrial case study. We conclude that the tool and technique is applicable to practical systems, and that it has promising error detection potential and execution performance. Categories and Subject Descriptors D.2 [Software Engineering]: Miscellaneous; D.2.5 [Software Engineering]: Testing and Debugging—symbolic execution, monitors,
A test generation framework for quiescent realtime systems
 IN FATES’04
, 2004
"... We present an extension of Tretmans’ theory and algorithm for test generation for inputoutput transition systems to realtime systems. Our treatment is based on an operational interpretation of the notion of quiescence in the context of realtime behaviour. This gives rise to a family of implementa ..."
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Cited by 28 (3 self)
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We present an extension of Tretmans’ theory and algorithm for test generation for inputoutput transition systems to realtime systems. Our treatment is based on an operational interpretation of the notion of quiescence in the context of realtime behaviour. This gives rise to a family of implementation relations parameterized by observation durations for quiescence. We define a nondeterministic (parameterized) test generation algorithm that generates test cases that are sound with respect to the corresponding implementation relation. The test generation is also exhaustive in the sense that for each nonconforming implementation a test case can be generated that detects the nonconformance.
An Expressive and Implementable Formal Framework for Testing RealTime Systems
 17th IFIP Intl. TestCom'05
, 2005
"... Abstract. We propose a new framework for blackbox conformance testing of realtime systems, based on the model of timed automata. The framework is expressive: it can fully handle partiallyobservable, nondeterministic timed automata. It also allows the user to define, through appropriate modeling, ..."
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Cited by 11 (1 self)
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Abstract. We propose a new framework for blackbox conformance testing of realtime systems, based on the model of timed automata. The framework is expressive: it can fully handle partiallyobservable, nondeterministic timed automata. It also allows the user to define, through appropriate modeling, assumptions on the environment of the system under test (SUT) as well as on the interface between the tester and the SUT. The framework is implementable: tests can be implemented as finitestate machines accessing a finiteprecision digital clock. We propose, for this framework, a set of testgeneration algorithms with respect to different coverage criteria. We have implemented these algorithms in a prototype tool called TTG. Experimental results obtained by applying TTG on the Bounded Retransmission Protocol show that only a few tests suffice to cover thousands of reachable symbolic states in the specification. 1
Testing conformance of realtime applications by automatic generation of observers
 In Runtime Verification (RV’04
, 2004
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Real Time Temporal Logic: Past, Present, Future
"... Abstract. This paper attempts to improve our understanding of timed languages and their relation to timed automata. We start by giving a constructive proof of the folk theorem stating that timed languages specified by the past fragment of MITL, can be accepted by deterministic timed automata. On the ..."
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Cited by 9 (2 self)
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Abstract. This paper attempts to improve our understanding of timed languages and their relation to timed automata. We start by giving a constructive proof of the folk theorem stating that timed languages specified by the past fragment of MITL, can be accepted by deterministic timed automata. On the other hand we provide a proof that certain languages expressed in the future fragment of MITL are not deterministic, 4 and analyze the reason for this asymmetry. 1
Timed testing with torx
 In: Formal Methods Europe. Volume 3582 of LNCS., Springer (2005) 173 – 188
, 2005
"... Abstract. TorX is a specificationbased, onthefly testing tool that tests for ioco conformance of implementations w.r.t. a formal specification. This paper describes an extension of TorX to not only allow testing for functional correctness, but also for correctness w.r.t. timing properties express ..."
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Abstract. TorX is a specificationbased, onthefly testing tool that tests for ioco conformance of implementations w.r.t. a formal specification. This paper describes an extension of TorX to not only allow testing for functional correctness, but also for correctness w.r.t. timing properties expressed in the specification. An implementation then passes a timed test if it passes according to ioco, and if occurrence times of outputs or of quiescence signals are legal according to the specification. The specifications are described by means of nondeterministic safety timed automata. This paper describes the basic algorithms for ioco, the necessary modifications to standard safety timed automata to make them usable as an input formalism, a testderivation algorithm from timed automata, and the concrete algorithms implemented in TorX for timed testing. Finally, practical concerns with respect to timed testing are discussed.
Timed Testing under Partial Observability
, 2009
"... This paper studies the problem of modelbased testing of realtime systems that are only partially observable. We model the System Under Test (SUT) using Timed Game Automata (TGA) which has internal actions, uncontrollable outputs and timing uncertainty of outputs. We define the partial observabilit ..."
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Cited by 9 (1 self)
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This paper studies the problem of modelbased testing of realtime systems that are only partially observable. We model the System Under Test (SUT) using Timed Game Automata (TGA) which has internal actions, uncontrollable outputs and timing uncertainty of outputs. We define the partial observability of SUT using a set of predicates over the TGA state space, and specify the test purposes in Computation Tree Logic (CTL) formulas. A recently developed partially observable timed game solver is used to generate winning strategies, which are used as test cases. We propose a conformance testing framework, define a partial observationbased conformance relation, present the test execution algorithms, and prove the soundness and completeness of this test method (i.e., a detected error really violates the conformance relation; and if the SUT violates the test purpose, then a test case can be generated to detect this violation). Experiments on some nontrivial examples show that this method yields encouraging results.