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**1 - 3**of**3**### Polynomial Certificates for Propositional Classes ⋆ Abstract

"... This paper studies the complexity of learning classes of expressions in propositional logic from equivalence queries and membership queries. In particular, we focus on bounding the number of queries that are required to learn the class ignoring computational complexity. This quantity is known to be ..."

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This paper studies the complexity of learning classes of expressions in propositional logic from equivalence queries and membership queries. In particular, we focus on bounding the number of queries that are required to learn the class ignoring computational complexity. This quantity is known to be captured by a combinatorial measure of concept classes known as the certificate complexity. The paper gives new constructions of polynomial size certificates for monotone expressions in conjunctive normal form (CNF), for unate CNF functions where each variable affects the function either positively or negatively but not both ways, and for Horn CNF functions. Lower bounds on certificate size for these classes are derived showing that for some parameter settings the new certificate constructions are optimal. Finally, the paper gives an exponential lower bound on the certificate size for a natural generalization of these classes known as renamable Horn CNF functions, thus implying that the class is not learnable from a polynomial number of queries. Preprint submitted to Information and Computation 2 March 2006 1

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, 1994

"... A recently introduced approach for the dynamical analysis and quantization of field theoretical models with second class constraints is ilustrated applied to linearized gravity in 3-D. The canonical structure of two different models of linerized gravity in 3-D, the intermediate and the self dual mod ..."

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A recently introduced approach for the dynamical analysis and quantization of field theoretical models with second class constraints is ilustrated applied to linearized gravity in 3-D. The canonical structure of two different models of linerized gravity in 3-D, the intermediate and the self dual models, is discussed in detail. It is shown that the first order self dual model whose constraints are all second class may be regarded as a gauge fixed version of the second order gauge invariant intermediate model. In particular it is shown how to construct the gauge invariant hamiltonian of the intermediate model starting from the one of the self dual model. The relation with the t opologically massive linearized gravity is also discussed. UNIVERSIDAD SIMON BOLIVAR – 2 – I.