Results 1  10
of
27
DataHiding Codes
 Proc. IEEE
, 2005
"... This tutorial paper reviews the theory and design of codes for hiding or embedding information in signals such as images, video, audio, graphics, and text. Such codes have also been called watermarking codes; they can be used in a variety of applications, including copyright protection for digital m ..."
Abstract

Cited by 56 (4 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
This tutorial paper reviews the theory and design of codes for hiding or embedding information in signals such as images, video, audio, graphics, and text. Such codes have also been called watermarking codes; they can be used in a variety of applications, including copyright protection for digital media, content authentication, media forensics, data binding, and covert communications. Some of these applications imply the presence of an adversary attempting to disrupt the transmission of information to the receiver; other applications involve a noisy, generally unknown, communication channel. Our focus is on the mathematical models, fundamental principles, and code design techniques that are applicable to data hiding. The approach draws from basic concepts in information theory, coding theory, game theory, and signal processing, and is illustrated with applications to the problem of hiding data in images. Keywords—Coding theory, data hiding, game theory, image processing, information theory, security, signal processing, watermarking. I.
Error Exponents For OneBit Watermarking
, 2003
"... Quantization index modulation (QIM) is a powerful hostinterference rejecting method for data hiding. This paper applies QIM to onebit watermarking and proposes a simple but powerful watermark detector. We derive lower bounds on the error exponents for the detector under a quadratic distortion const ..."
Abstract

Cited by 25 (3 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Quantization index modulation (QIM) is a powerful hostinterference rejecting method for data hiding. This paper applies QIM to onebit watermarking and proposes a simple but powerful watermark detector. We derive lower bounds on the error exponents for the detector under a quadratic distortion constraint for the watermarker and additive white Gaussian noise attacks. These bounds are independent of the hostsignal distribution and are substantially better than recently derived bounds for public (blind) spreadspectrum watermarking.
Design and statistical analysis of a hashaided image watermarking system
 IEEE Trans. on Image Processing
, 2004
"... This paper develops a joint hashing/watermarking scheme in which a short hash of the host signal is available to a detector. Potential applications include content tracking on public networks and forensic identification. The host data into which the watermark is embedded are selected from a secret s ..."
Abstract

Cited by 21 (1 self)
 Add to MetaCart
This paper develops a joint hashing/watermarking scheme in which a short hash of the host signal is available to a detector. Potential applications include content tracking on public networks and forensic identification. The host data into which the watermark is embedded are selected from a secret subset of the fullframe discrete cosine transform of an image, and the watermark is inserted through multiplicative embedding. The hash is a binary version of selected original image coefficients. We propose a maximumlikelihood watermark detector based on a statistical image model. The availability of a hash as side information to the detector modifies the posterior distribution of the marked coefficients. We derive Chernoff bounds on the receiver operating characteristic performance of the detector. We show that hostsignal interference can be rejected if the hash function is suitably designed. The relative difficulty of an eavesdropper’s detection problem is also determined; the eavesdropper does not know the secret key used. Monte Carlo simulations are performed using photographic test images. Finally, various attacks on the watermarked image are introduced to study the robustness of the derived detectors. The joint hashing/watermarking scheme outperforms the traditional “hashless ” watermarking technique. Index Terms contentbased retrieval, authentication, image watermarking, image hashing, detection theory, likelihood ratio test, Chernoff bounds, eavesdropping. I.
Spread Spectrum Watermarking Security
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY
, 2008
"... This paper presents both theoretical and practical analyses of the security offered by watermarking and data hiding methods based on spread spectrum. In this context, security is understood as the difficulty of estimating the secret parameters of the embedding function based on the observation of wa ..."
Abstract

Cited by 14 (1 self)
 Add to MetaCart
This paper presents both theoretical and practical analyses of the security offered by watermarking and data hiding methods based on spread spectrum. In this context, security is understood as the difficulty of estimating the secret parameters of the embedding function based on the observation of watermarked signals. On the theoretical side, the security is quantified from an informationtheoretic point of view by means of the equivocation about the secret parameters. The main results reveal fundamental limits and bounds on security and provide insight into other properties, such as the impact of the embedding parameters, and the tradeoff between robustness and security. On the practical side, workable estimators of the secret parameters are proposed and theoretically analyzed for a variety of scenarios, providing a comparison with previous approaches, and showing that the security of many schemes used in practice can be fairly low.
A survey of watermarking security
 Proc. of Int. Work. on Digital Watermarking. Volume 3710 of Lecture Notes on Computer Science
, 2005
"... Abstract. Digital watermarking studies have always been driven by the improvement of robustness. Most of articles of this field deal with this criterion, presenting more and more impressive experimental assessments. Some key events in this quest are the use of spread spectrum, the invention of resyn ..."
Abstract

Cited by 10 (1 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Abstract. Digital watermarking studies have always been driven by the improvement of robustness. Most of articles of this field deal with this criterion, presenting more and more impressive experimental assessments. Some key events in this quest are the use of spread spectrum, the invention of resynchronization schemes, the discovery of side information channel, and the formulation of the opponent actions as a game. On the contrary, security received little attention in the watermarking community. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of this recent topic. We list the typical applications which requires a secure watermarking technique. For each context, a threat analysis is purposed. This presentation allows us to illustrate all the certainties the community has on the subject, browsing all key papers. The end of the paper is devoted to what remains not clear, intuitions and future studies. 1
Gametheoretic analysis of a semifragile watermarking scheme based on scs
 In Proc. of ICIP’05
, 2005
"... Semifragile watermarking can be used to detect illegal and local manipulation of images, while being robust towards legal manipulations such as lossy compression. This paper describes a gametheoretic approach to design a blind semifragile watermarking system based on the Scalar Costa Scheme. A nat ..."
Abstract

Cited by 6 (5 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
Semifragile watermarking can be used to detect illegal and local manipulation of images, while being robust towards legal manipulations such as lossy compression. This paper describes a gametheoretic approach to design a blind semifragile watermarking system based on the Scalar Costa Scheme. A natural choice for the game criterion is a false alarm probability, i.e. the probability to still detect the watermark, even if part of the data has been replaced. Optimal embedding strategy is then derived in presence of a legal processing (e.g. lossy compression, through some model). Finally, the results are applied to design an efficient DCT semifragile watermarking system which allows to detect local forgery signals in spite of JPEG compression. 1.
Security of spreadspectrumbased data hiding
 SECURITY, STEGANOGRAPHY, AND WATERMARKING OF MULTIMEDIA CONTENTS IX. VOLUME 6505
, 2007
"... This paper presents an informationtheoretic analysis of security for data hiding methods based on spread spectrum. The security is quantified by means of the mutual information between the observed watermarked signals and the secret carrier (a.k.a. spreading vector) that conveys the watermark, a me ..."
Abstract

Cited by 3 (2 self)
 Add to MetaCart
This paper presents an informationtheoretic analysis of security for data hiding methods based on spread spectrum. The security is quantified by means of the mutual information between the observed watermarked signals and the secret carrier (a.k.a. spreading vector) that conveys the watermark, a measure that can be used to bound the number of observations needed to estimate the carrier up to a certain accuracy. The main results of this paper permit to establish fundamental security limits for this kind of methods and to draw conclusions about the tradeoffs between robustness and security. Specifically, the impact of the dimensionality of the embedding function, the host rejection, and the embedding distortion in the security level is investigated, and in some cases explicitly quantified.
Audio Watermarking Under Desynchronization and Additive Noise Attacks
, 2006
"... Digital watermarking is often modeled as the transmission of a message over a noisy channel denoted as “watermark channel.” Distortions introduced by the watermark channel result mainly from attacks and may include interference from the original signal. One of the main differences with classical tr ..."
Abstract

Cited by 2 (0 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Digital watermarking is often modeled as the transmission of a message over a noisy channel denoted as “watermark channel.” Distortions introduced by the watermark channel result mainly from attacks and may include interference from the original signal. One of the main differences with classical transmission situations stems from the fact that perceived distortions have to be taken into account. However, measuring the perceived impact an attack has on a watermarked signal is currently an unsolved problem. Possible means of circumventing this problem would be 1) to define the distortion in a socalled “perceived domain ” and define an “ad hoc ” equivalence between objective and perceived distortion or 2) to define an “equivalent distortion ” by removing from the attack noise the part that is correlated to the host signal. This paper concentrates on the second approach and first shows that the resulting “equivalent” attack is a particular case of a thoroughly studied channel: filtering plus additive noise. However, the approach in this paper emphasizes the fact that the additive noise in the model has to be decorrelated with the signal. Then, the formalism is applied to (desynchronization plus noise) attacks on audio signals. In this context, this paper provides the corresponding capacities, as well as optimal “attack” and “defense” strategies in a game theory context.
Optimal Strategies For SpreadSpectrum And QuantizedProjection Image Data Hiding Games with BER Payoffs
 in Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP
, 2003
"... We analyze spreadspectrum and quantization projection data hiding methods from a gametheoretic point of view, using the bit error rate (BER) as the payoff, and assuming that the embedder simply follows pointbypoint constraints given by a perceptual mask, whereas for the attacker an MSElike con ..."
Abstract

Cited by 2 (1 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
We analyze spreadspectrum and quantization projection data hiding methods from a gametheoretic point of view, using the bit error rate (BER) as the payoff, and assuming that the embedder simply follows pointbypoint constraints given by a perceptual mask, whereas for the attacker an MSElike constraint is imposed. The optimal attacking and decoding strategies are obtained by making use of a theorem that in addition states that those strategies constitute an equilibrium of the game. Experimental results supporting our analyses are also shown.
Object Management Group. ObjectsbyValue, OMG Document orbos/980118 edn
 In 2006 International Conference on Multimedia & Expo (ICME
, 1998
"... In the integrity checking context of multimedia contents, a malicious user aims at devising a forged content in order to fool a watermarker by making him use as a genuine content. By considering that the watermark acts as an integrity stamp, the falsealarm probability to recover the watermark signa ..."
Abstract

Cited by 2 (1 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
In the integrity checking context of multimedia contents, a malicious user aims at devising a forged content in order to fool a watermarker by making him use as a genuine content. By considering that the watermark acts as an integrity stamp, the falsealarm probability to recover the watermark signature in a forged content is the criterion of interest. We study and solve a game for this criterion between a watermarker and a falsifier which is allowed to perform a substitution attack, i.e. replace the watermarked signal by a nonwatermarked content. As for the watermarker, we are concerned with additive spreadspectrum (SS) embedding. Signals are modeled by parallel colored gaussian processes. Due to the intractability of the falsealarm probability, we resort to Chernoff bound as an alternative cost. Our study confirms some common heuristics: the best attacker choice is to substitute the watermarked host signal using a signal which has very close statistics to the original host signal. The best watermarker strategy is to embed the watermark into the weakest frequency power components of the host signal. We finally consider the consequences of these results in terms of frequency embedding domain for an image SS watermarking scheme which has to be robust to compression. This reveals notable differences with informed scalar quantizedbased schemes. 1.