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250
Lambertian Reflectance and Linear Subspaces
, 2000
"... We prove that the set of all reflectance functions (the mapping from surface normals to intensities) produced by Lambertian objects under distant, isotropic lighting lies close to a 9D linear subspace. This implies that, in general, the set of images of a convex Lambertian object obtained under a wi ..."
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Cited by 514 (20 self)
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We prove that the set of all reflectance functions (the mapping from surface normals to intensities) produced by Lambertian objects under distant, isotropic lighting lies close to a 9D linear subspace. This implies that, in general, the set of images of a convex Lambertian object obtained under a wide variety of lighting conditions can be approximated accurately by a lowdimensional linear subspace, explaining prior empirical results. We also provide a simple analytic characterization of this linear space. We obtain these results by representing lighting using spherical harmonics and describing the effects of Lambertian materials as the analog of a convolution. These results allow us to construct algorithms for object recognition based on linear methods as well as algorithms that use convex optimization to enforce nonnegative lighting functions. Finally, we show a simple way to enforce nonnegative lighting when the images of an object lie near a 4D linear space. Research conducted w...
Gradient Domain High Dynamic Range Compression
 PROCEEDINGS OF ACM SIGGRAPH 2002
, 2002
"... We present a new method for rendering high dynamic range images on conventional displays. Our method is conceptually simple, computationally efficient, robust, and easy to use. We manipulate the gradient field of the luminance image by attenuating the magnitudes of large gradients. A new, low dynami ..."
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Cited by 375 (10 self)
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We present a new method for rendering high dynamic range images on conventional displays. Our method is conceptually simple, computationally efficient, robust, and easy to use. We manipulate the gradient field of the luminance image by attenuating the magnitudes of large gradients. A new, low dynamic range image is then obtained by solving a Poisson equation on the modified gradient field. Our results demonstrate that the method is capable of drastic dynamic range compression, while preserving fine details and avoiding common artifacts, such as halos, gradient reversals, or loss of local contrast. The method is also able to significantly enhance ordinary images by bringing out detail in dark regions.
Acquiring linear subspaces for face recognition under variable lighting
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 2005
"... Previous work has demonstrated that the image variation of many objects (human faces in particular) under variable lighting can be effectively modeled by low dimensional linear spaces, even when there are multiple light sources and shadowing. Basis images spanning this space are usually obtained in ..."
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Cited by 302 (2 self)
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Previous work has demonstrated that the image variation of many objects (human faces in particular) under variable lighting can be effectively modeled by low dimensional linear spaces, even when there are multiple light sources and shadowing. Basis images spanning this space are usually obtained in one of three ways: A large set of images of the object under different lighting conditions is acquired, and principal component analysis (PCA) is used to estimate a subspace. Alternatively, synthetic images are rendered from a 3D model (perhaps reconstructed from images) under point sources, and again PCA is used to estimate a subspace. Finally, images rendered from a 3D model under diffuse lighting based on spherical harmonics are directly used as basis images. In this paper, we show how to arrange physical lighting so that the acquired images of each object can be directly used as the basis vectors of a lowdimensional linear space, and that this subspace is close to those acquired by the other methods. More specifically, there exist configurations of k point light source directions, with k typically ranging from 5 to 9, such that by taking k images of an object under these single sources, the resulting subspace is an effective representation for recognition under a wide range of lighting conditions. Since the subspace is generated directly from real images, potentially complex and/or brittle intermediate steps such as 3D reconstruction can be completely avoided; nor is it necessary to acquire large numbers of training images or to physically construct complex diffuse (harmonic) light fields. We validate the use of subspaces constructed in this fashion within the context of face recognition.
ImageBased Reconstruction of Spatial Appearance and Geometric Detail
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 2003
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Cited by 141 (24 self)
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Frequency space environment map rendering
 ACM Transactions on Graphics (SIGGRAPH
, 2002
"... Figure 1: These images, showing many different lighting conditions and BRDFs, were each rendered at approximately 30 frames per second using our Spherical Harmonic Reflection Map (SHRM) representation. From left to right, a simplified microfacet BRDF, krylon blue (using McCool et al.’s reconstructio ..."
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Cited by 122 (8 self)
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Figure 1: These images, showing many different lighting conditions and BRDFs, were each rendered at approximately 30 frames per second using our Spherical Harmonic Reflection Map (SHRM) representation. From left to right, a simplified microfacet BRDF, krylon blue (using McCool et al.’s reconstruction from measurements at Cornell), orange and velvet (CURET database), and an anisotropic BRDF (based on the KajiyaKay model). The environment maps are the Grace Cathedral, St. Peter’s Basilica, the Uffizi gallery, and a Eucalyptus grove, courtesy Paul Debevec. The armadillo model is from Venkat Krishnamurthy. We present a new method for realtime rendering of objects with complex isotropic BRDFs under distant natural illumination, as specified by an environment map. Our approach is based on spherical frequency space analysis and includes three main contributions. Firstly, we are able to theoretically analyze required sampling rates and resolutions, which have traditionally been determined in an adhoc manner. We also introduce a new compact representation, which we call a spherical harmonic reflection map (SHRM), for efficient representation and rendering. Finally, we show how to rapidly prefilter the environment map to compute the SHRM—our frequency domain prefiltering algorithm is generally orders of magnitude faster than previous angular (spatial) domain approaches.
MultiView Scene Capture by Surfel Sampling: From Video Streams to NonRigid 3D Motion, Shape Reflectance
, 2001
"... In this paper we study the problem of recovering the 3D shape, reflectance, and nonrigid motion of a dynamic 3D scene. Because these properties are completely unknown, our approach uses multiple views to build a piecewisecontinuous geometric and radiometric representation of the scene's trace ..."
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Cited by 120 (0 self)
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In this paper we study the problem of recovering the 3D shape, reflectance, and nonrigid motion of a dynamic 3D scene. Because these properties are completely unknown, our approach uses multiple views to build a piecewisecontinuous geometric and radiometric representation of the scene's trace in spacetime. Basic primitive of this representation is the dynamic surfel, which (1) encodes the instantaneous local shape, reflectance, and motion of a small region in the scene, and (2) enables accurate prediction of the region's dynamic appearance under known illumination conditions. We show that complete surfelbased reconstructions can be created by repeatedly applying an algorithm called Surfel Sampling that combines sampling and parameter estimation to fit a single surfel to a small, bounded region of spacetime. Experimental results with the Phong reflectance model and complex real scenes (clothing, skin, shiny objects) illustrate our method's ability to explain pixels and pixel variations in terms of their physical causes shape, reflectance, motion, illumination, and visibility.
Analytic PCA Construction for Theoretical Analysis of Lighting Variability in Images of a Lambertian Object
 IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 2002
"... Lambertian object ..."
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Clustering appearances of objects under varying illumination conditions
 In CVPR
, 2003
"... We introduce two appearancebased methods for clustering a set of images of 3D objects, acquired under varying illumination conditions, into disjoint subsets corresponding to individual objects. The first algorithm is based on the concept of illumination cones. According to the theory, the clusteri ..."
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Cited by 114 (3 self)
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We introduce two appearancebased methods for clustering a set of images of 3D objects, acquired under varying illumination conditions, into disjoint subsets corresponding to individual objects. The first algorithm is based on the concept of illumination cones. According to the theory, the clustering problem is equivalent to finding convex polyhedral cones in the highdimensional image space. To efficiently determine the conic structures hidden in the image data, we introduce the concept of conic affinity which measures the likelihood of a pair of images belonging to the same underlying polyhedral cone. For the second method, we introduce another affinity measure based on image gradient comparisons. The algorithm operates directly on the image gradients by comparing the magnitudes and orientations of the image gradient at each pixel. Both methods have clear geometric motivations, and they operate directly on the images without the need for feature extraction or computation of pixel statistics. We demonstrate experimentally that both algorithms are surprisingly effective in clustering images acquired under varying illumination conditions with two large, wellknown image data sets. 1