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Quantum state estimation and large deviations
, 2004
"... In this paper we propose a method to estimate the density matrix ρ of a dlevel quantum system by measurements on the Nfold system in the joint state ρ ⊗N. The scheme is based on covariant observables and representation theory of unitary groups and it extends previous results concerning the estimat ..."
Abstract

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In this paper we propose a method to estimate the density matrix ρ of a dlevel quantum system by measurements on the Nfold system in the joint state ρ ⊗N. The scheme is based on covariant observables and representation theory of unitary groups and it extends previous results concerning the estimation of the spectrum of ρ. We show that it is consistent (i.e. the original input state ρ is recovered with certainty if N → ∞), analyze its large deviation behavior, and calculate explicitly the corresponding rate function which describes the exponential decrease of error probabilities in the limit N → ∞. Finally we discuss the question whether the proposed scheme provides the fastest possible decay of error probabilities. 1