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553
Compressed sensing
 IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory
, 2006
"... We study the notion of Compressed Sensing (CS) as put forward in [14] and related work [20, 3, 4]. The basic idea behind CS is that a signal or image, unknown but supposed to be compressible by a known transform, (eg. wavelet or Fourier), can be subjected to fewer measurements than the nominal numbe ..."
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Cited by 3600 (24 self)
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We study the notion of Compressed Sensing (CS) as put forward in [14] and related work [20, 3, 4]. The basic idea behind CS is that a signal or image, unknown but supposed to be compressible by a known transform, (eg. wavelet or Fourier), can be subjected to fewer measurements than the nominal number of pixels, and yet be accurately reconstructed. The samples are nonadaptive and measure ‘random ’ linear combinations of the transform coefficients. Approximate reconstruction is obtained by solving for the transform coefficients consistent with measured data and having the smallest possible `1 norm. We perform a series of numerical experiments which validate in general terms the basic idea proposed in [14, 3, 5], in the favorable case where the transform coefficients are sparse in the strong sense that the vast majority are zero. We then consider a range of lessfavorable cases, in which the object has all coefficients nonzero, but the coefficients obey an `p bound, for some p ∈ (0, 1]. These experiments show that the basic inequalities behind the CS method seem to involve reasonable constants. We next consider synthetic examples modelling problems in spectroscopy and image pro
Near Optimal Signal Recovery From Random Projections: Universal Encoding Strategies?
, 2004
"... Suppose we are given a vector f in RN. How many linear measurements do we need to make about f to be able to recover f to within precision ɛ in the Euclidean (ℓ2) metric? Or more exactly, suppose we are interested in a class F of such objects— discrete digital signals, images, etc; how many linear m ..."
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Cited by 1513 (20 self)
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Suppose we are given a vector f in RN. How many linear measurements do we need to make about f to be able to recover f to within precision ɛ in the Euclidean (ℓ2) metric? Or more exactly, suppose we are interested in a class F of such objects— discrete digital signals, images, etc; how many linear measurements do we need to recover objects from this class to within accuracy ɛ? This paper shows that if the objects of interest are sparse or compressible in the sense that the reordered entries of a signal f ∈ F decay like a powerlaw (or if the coefficient sequence of f in a fixed basis decays like a powerlaw), then it is possible to reconstruct f to within very high accuracy from a small number of random measurements. typical result is as follows: we rearrange the entries of f (or its coefficients in a fixed basis) in decreasing order of magnitude f  (1) ≥ f  (2) ≥... ≥ f  (N), and define the weakℓp ball as the class F of those elements whose entries obey the power decay law f  (n) ≤ C · n −1/p. We take measurements 〈f, Xk〉, k = 1,..., K, where the Xk are Ndimensional Gaussian
Compressive sampling
, 2006
"... Conventional wisdom and common practice in acquisition and reconstruction of images from frequency data follow the basic principle of the Nyquist density sampling theory. This principle states that to reconstruct an image, the number of Fourier samples we need to acquire must match the desired res ..."
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Cited by 1427 (15 self)
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Conventional wisdom and common practice in acquisition and reconstruction of images from frequency data follow the basic principle of the Nyquist density sampling theory. This principle states that to reconstruct an image, the number of Fourier samples we need to acquire must match the desired resolution of the image, i.e. the number of pixels in the image. This paper surveys an emerging theory which goes by the name of “compressive sampling” or “compressed sensing,” and which says that this conventional wisdom is inaccurate. Perhaps surprisingly, it is possible to reconstruct images or signals of scientific interest accurately and sometimes even exactly from a number of samples which is far smaller than the desired resolution of the image/signal, e.g. the number of pixels in the image. It is believed that compressive sampling has far reaching implications. For example, it suggests the possibility of new data acquisition protocols that translate analog information into digital form with fewer sensors than what was considered necessary. This new sampling theory may come to underlie procedures for sampling and compressing data simultaneously. In this short survey, we provide some of the key mathematical insights underlying this new theory, and explain some of the interactions between compressive sampling and other fields such as statistics, information theory, coding theory, and theoretical computer science.
Decoding by Linear Programming
, 2004
"... This paper considers the classical error correcting problem which is frequently discussed in coding theory. We wish to recover an input vector f ∈ Rn from corrupted measurements y = Af + e. Here, A is an m by n (coding) matrix and e is an arbitrary and unknown vector of errors. Is it possible to rec ..."
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Cited by 1400 (17 self)
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This paper considers the classical error correcting problem which is frequently discussed in coding theory. We wish to recover an input vector f ∈ Rn from corrupted measurements y = Af + e. Here, A is an m by n (coding) matrix and e is an arbitrary and unknown vector of errors. Is it possible to recover f exactly from the data y? We prove that under suitable conditions on the coding matrix A, the input f is the unique solution to the ℓ1minimization problem (‖x‖ℓ1:= i xi) min g∈R n ‖y − Ag‖ℓ1 provided that the support of the vector of errors is not too large, ‖e‖ℓ0: = {i: ei ̸= 0}  ≤ ρ · m for some ρ> 0. In short, f can be recovered exactly by solving a simple convex optimization problem (which one can recast as a linear program). In addition, numerical experiments suggest that this recovery procedure works unreasonably well; f is recovered exactly even in situations where a significant fraction of the output is corrupted. This work is related to the problem of finding sparse solutions to vastly underdetermined systems of linear equations. There are also significant connections with the problem of recovering signals from highly incomplete measurements. In fact, the results introduced in this paper improve on our earlier work [5]. Finally, underlying the success of ℓ1 is a crucial property we call the uniform uncertainty principle that we shall describe in detail.
KSVD: An Algorithm for Designing Overcomplete Dictionaries for Sparse Representation
, 2006
"... In recent years there has been a growing interest in the study of sparse representation of signals. Using an overcomplete dictionary that contains prototype signalatoms, signals are described by sparse linear combinations of these atoms. Applications that use sparse representation are many and inc ..."
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Cited by 930 (41 self)
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In recent years there has been a growing interest in the study of sparse representation of signals. Using an overcomplete dictionary that contains prototype signalatoms, signals are described by sparse linear combinations of these atoms. Applications that use sparse representation are many and include compression, regularization in inverse problems, feature extraction, and more. Recent activity in this field has concentrated mainly on the study of pursuit algorithms that decompose signals with respect to a given dictionary. Designing dictionaries to better fit the above model can be done by either selecting one from a prespecified set of linear transforms or adapting the dictionary to a set of training signals. Both of these techniques have been considered, but this topic is largely still open. In this paper we propose a novel algorithm for adapting dictionaries in order to achieve sparse signal representations. Given a set of training signals, we seek the dictionary that leads to the best representation for each member in this set, under strict sparsity constraints. We present a new method—the KSVD algorithm—generalizing the umeans clustering process. KSVD is an iterative method that alternates between sparse coding of the examples based on the current dictionary and a process of updating the dictionary atoms to better fit the data. The update of the dictionary columns is combined with an update of the sparse representations, thereby accelerating convergence. The KSVD algorithm is flexible and can work with any pursuit method (e.g., basis pursuit, FOCUSS, or matching pursuit). We analyze this algorithm and demonstrate its results both on synthetic tests and in applications on real image data.
Robust face recognition via sparse representation
 IEEE TRANS. PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 2008
"... We consider the problem of automatically recognizing human faces from frontal views with varying expression and illumination, as well as occlusion and disguise. We cast the recognition problem as one of classifying among multiple linear regression models, and argue that new theory from sparse signa ..."
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Cited by 916 (41 self)
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We consider the problem of automatically recognizing human faces from frontal views with varying expression and illumination, as well as occlusion and disguise. We cast the recognition problem as one of classifying among multiple linear regression models, and argue that new theory from sparse signal representation offers the key to addressing this problem. Based on a sparse representation computed by ℓ 1minimization, we propose a general classification algorithm for (imagebased) object recognition. This new framework provides new insights into two crucial issues in face recognition: feature extraction and robustness to occlusion. For feature extraction, we show that if sparsity in the recognition problem is properly harnessed, the choice of features is no longer critical. What is critical, however, is whether the number of features is sufficiently large and whether the sparse representation is correctly computed. Unconventional features such as downsampled images and random projections perform just as well as conventional features such as Eigenfaces and Laplacianfaces, as long as the dimension of the feature space surpasses certain threshold, predicted by the theory of sparse representation. This framework can handle errors due to occlusion and corruption uniformly, by exploiting the fact that these errors are often sparse w.r.t. to the standard (pixel) basis. The theory of sparse representation helps predict how much occlusion the recognition algorithm can handle and how to choose the training images to maximize robustness to occlusion. We conduct extensive experiments on publicly available databases to verify the efficacy of the proposed algorithm, and corroborate the above claims.
The Dantzig Selector: Statistical Estimation When p Is Much Larger Than n
, 2007
"... In many important statistical applications, the number of variables or parameters p is much larger than the number of observations n. Suppose then that we have observations y = Xβ + z, where β ∈ Rp is a parameter vector of interest, X is a data matrix with possibly far fewer rows than columns, n ≪ p ..."
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Cited by 877 (14 self)
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In many important statistical applications, the number of variables or parameters p is much larger than the number of observations n. Suppose then that we have observations y = Xβ + z, where β ∈ Rp is a parameter vector of interest, X is a data matrix with possibly far fewer rows than columns, n ≪ p, and the zi’s are i.i.d. N(0,σ2). Is it possible to estimate β reliably based on the noisy data y? To estimate β, we introduce a new estimator—we call it the Dantzig selector—which is a solution to the ℓ1regularization problem min ˜β∈R p ‖ ˜β‖ℓ1 subject to ‖X ∗ r‖ℓ ∞ ≤ (1 + t−1 √) 2logp · σ, where r is the residual vector y − X ˜β and t is a positive scalar. We show that if X obeys a uniform uncertainty principle (with unitnormed columns) and if the true parameter vector β is sufficiently sparse (which here roughly guarantees that the model is identifiable), then with very large probability,
Signal recovery from random measurements via Orthogonal Matching Pursuit
 IEEE TRANS. INFORM. THEORY
, 2007
"... This technical report demonstrates theoretically and empirically that a greedy algorithm called Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) can reliably recover a signal with m nonzero entries in dimension d given O(m ln d) random linear measurements of that signal. This is a massive improvement over previous ..."
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Cited by 780 (9 self)
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This technical report demonstrates theoretically and empirically that a greedy algorithm called Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) can reliably recover a signal with m nonzero entries in dimension d given O(m ln d) random linear measurements of that signal. This is a massive improvement over previous results for OMP, which require O(m 2) measurements. The new results for OMP are comparable with recent results for another algorithm called Basis Pursuit (BP). The OMP algorithm is faster and easier to implement, which makes it an attractive alternative to BP for signal recovery problems.
Just Relax: Convex Programming Methods for Identifying Sparse Signals in Noise
, 2006
"... This paper studies a difficult and fundamental problem that arises throughout electrical engineering, applied mathematics, and statistics. Suppose that one forms a short linear combination of elementary signals drawn from a large, fixed collection. Given an observation of the linear combination that ..."
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Cited by 496 (2 self)
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This paper studies a difficult and fundamental problem that arises throughout electrical engineering, applied mathematics, and statistics. Suppose that one forms a short linear combination of elementary signals drawn from a large, fixed collection. Given an observation of the linear combination that has been contaminated with additive noise, the goal is to identify which elementary signals participated and to approximate their coefficients. Although many algorithms have been proposed, there is little theory which guarantees that these algorithms can accurately and efficiently solve the problem. This paper studies a method called convex relaxation, which attempts to recover the ideal sparse signal by solving a convex program. This approach is powerful because the optimization can be completed in polynomial time with standard scientific software. The paper provides general conditions which ensure that convex relaxation succeeds. As evidence of the broad impact of these results, the paper describes how convex relaxation can be used for several concrete signal recovery problems. It also describes applications to channel coding, linear regression, and numerical analysis.
From Sparse Solutions of Systems of Equations to Sparse Modeling of Signals and Images
, 2007
"... A fullrank matrix A ∈ IR n×m with n < m generates an underdetermined system of linear equations Ax = b having infinitely many solutions. Suppose we seek the sparsest solution, i.e., the one with the fewest nonzero entries: can it ever be unique? If so, when? As optimization of sparsity is combin ..."
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Cited by 423 (37 self)
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A fullrank matrix A ∈ IR n×m with n < m generates an underdetermined system of linear equations Ax = b having infinitely many solutions. Suppose we seek the sparsest solution, i.e., the one with the fewest nonzero entries: can it ever be unique? If so, when? As optimization of sparsity is combinatorial in nature, are there efficient methods for finding the sparsest solution? These questions have been answered positively and constructively in recent years, exposing a wide variety of surprising phenomena; in particular, the existence of easilyverifiable conditions under which optimallysparse solutions can be found by concrete, effective computational methods. Such theoretical results inspire a bold perspective on some important practical problems in signal and image processing. Several wellknown signal and image processing problems can be cast as demanding solutions of undetermined systems of equations. Such problems have previously seemed, to many, intractable. There is considerable evidence that these problems often have sparse solutions. Hence, advances in finding sparse solutions to underdetermined systems energizes research on such signal and image processing problems – to striking effect. In this paper we review the theoretical results on sparse solutions of linear systems, empirical