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68
The Contourlet Transform: An Efficient Directional Multiresolution Image Representation
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING
"... The limitations of commonly used separable extensions of onedimensional transforms, such as the Fourier and wavelet transforms, in capturing the geometry of image edges are well known. In this paper, we pursue a “true” twodimensional transform that can capture the intrinsic geometrical structure t ..."
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Cited by 513 (20 self)
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The limitations of commonly used separable extensions of onedimensional transforms, such as the Fourier and wavelet transforms, in capturing the geometry of image edges are well known. In this paper, we pursue a “true” twodimensional transform that can capture the intrinsic geometrical structure that is key in visual information. The main challenge in exploring geometry in images comes from the discrete nature of the data. Thus, unlike other approaches, such as curvelets, that first develop a transform in the continuous domain and then discretize for sampled data, our approach starts with a discretedomain construction and then studies its convergence to an expansion in the continuous domain. Specifically, we construct a discretedomain multiresolution and multidirection expansion using nonseparable filter banks, in much the same way that wavelets were derived from filter banks. This construction results in a flexible multiresolution, local, and directional image expansion using contour segments, and thus it is named the contourlet transform. The discrete contourlet transform has a fast iterated filter bank algorithm that requires an order N operations for Npixel images. Furthermore, we establish a precise link between the developed filter bank and the associated continuousdomain contourlet expansion via a directional multiresolution analysis framework. We show that with parabolic scaling and sufficient directional vanishing moments, contourlets achieve the optimal approximation rate for piecewise smooth functions with discontinuities along twice continuously differentiable curves. Finally, we show some numerical experiments demonstrating the potential of contourlets in several image processing applications.
The DualTree Complex Wavelet Transform  A coherent framework for multiscale signal and image processing
, 2005
"... The dualtree complex wavelet transform (CWT) is a relatively recent enhancement to the discrete wavelet transform (DWT), with important additional properties: It is nearly shift invariant and directionally selective in two and higher dimensions. It achieves this with a redundancy factor of only 2 ..."
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Cited by 270 (29 self)
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The dualtree complex wavelet transform (CWT) is a relatively recent enhancement to the discrete wavelet transform (DWT), with important additional properties: It is nearly shift invariant and directionally selective in two and higher dimensions. It achieves this with a redundancy factor of only 2 d for ddimensional signals, which is substantially lower than the undecimated DWT. The multidimensional (MD) dualtree CWT is nonseparable but is based on a computationally efficient, separable filter bank (FB). This tutorial discusses the theory behind the dualtree transform, shows how complex wavelets with good properties can be designed, and illustrates a range of applications in signal and image processing. We use the complex number symbol C in CWT to
Image Decomposition via the Combination of Sparse Representations and a Variational Approach
 IEEE Transactions on Image Processing
, 2004
"... The separation of image content into semantic parts plays a vital role in applications such as compression, enhancement, restoration, and more. In recent years several pioneering works suggested such a separation based on variational formulation, and others using independent component analysis and s ..."
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Cited by 219 (28 self)
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The separation of image content into semantic parts plays a vital role in applications such as compression, enhancement, restoration, and more. In recent years several pioneering works suggested such a separation based on variational formulation, and others using independent component analysis and sparsity. This paper presents a novel method for separating images into texture and piecewise smooth (cartoon) parts, exploiting both the variational and the sparsity mechanisms. The method combines the Basis Pursuit Denoising (BPDN) algorithm and the TotalVariation (TV) regularization scheme. The basic idea presented in this paper is the use of two appropriate dictionaries, one for the representation of textures, and the other for the natural scene parts, assumed to be piecewisesmooth. Both dictionaries are chosen such that they lead to sparse representations over one type of imagecontent (either texture or piecewise smooth). The use of the BPDN with the two augmented dictionaries leads to the desired separation, along with noise removal as a byproduct. As the need to choose proper dictionaries is generally hard, a TV regularization is employed to better direct the separation process and reduce ringing artifacts. We present a highly e#cient numerical scheme to solve the combined optimization problem posed in our model, and show several experimental results that validate the algorithm's performance.
The JPEG2000 still image compression standard
 IEEE Signal Proc. Mag
, 2001
"... The development of standards (emerging and established) by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) for audio, image, and video, for both transmission and storage, has led to wo ..."
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Cited by 180 (11 self)
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The development of standards (emerging and established) by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) for audio, image, and video, for both transmission and storage, has led to worldwide activity in developing hardware and software systems and products applicable to a number of diverse disciplines [7], [22], [23], [55], [56], [73]. Although the standards implicitly address the basic encoding operations, there is freedom and flexibility in the actual design and development of devices. This is because only the syntax and semantics of the bit stream for decoding are specified by standards, their main objective being the compatibility and interoperability among the systems (hardware/software) manufactured by different companies. There is, thus, much room for innovation and ingenuity. Since the mid 1980s, members from both the ITU and the ISO have been working together to establish a joint international standard for the compression of grayscale and color still images. This effort has been known as JPEG, the Joint
Sampling moments and reconstructing signals of finite rate of innovation: Shannon meets StrangFix
, 2006
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Theoretical Foundations of Transform Coding
, 2001
"... This article explains the fundamental principles of transform coding; these principles apply equally well to images, audio, video, and various other types of data, so abstract formulations are given. Much of the material presented here is adapted from [14, Chap. 2, 4]. The details on wavelet transfo ..."
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Cited by 80 (6 self)
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This article explains the fundamental principles of transform coding; these principles apply equally well to images, audio, video, and various other types of data, so abstract formulations are given. Much of the material presented here is adapted from [14, Chap. 2, 4]. The details on wavelet transformbased image compression and the JPEG2000 image compression standard are given in the following two articles of this special issue [38], [37]
Ratedistortion optimized tree structured compression algorithms for piecewise smooth images
 IEEE Trans. Image Processing
, 2005
"... IEEE Transactions on Image Processing This paper presents novel coding algorithms based on tree structured segmentation, which achieve the correct asymptotic ratedistortion (RD) behavior for a simple class of signals, known as piecewise polynomials, by using an RD based prune and join scheme. Fo ..."
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Cited by 76 (16 self)
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IEEE Transactions on Image Processing This paper presents novel coding algorithms based on tree structured segmentation, which achieve the correct asymptotic ratedistortion (RD) behavior for a simple class of signals, known as piecewise polynomials, by using an RD based prune and join scheme. For the one dimensional (1D) case, our scheme is based on binary tree segmentation of the signal. This scheme approximates the signal segments using polynomial models and utilizes an RD optimal bit allocation strategy among the different signal segments. The scheme further encodes similar neighbors jointly to achieve the correct exponentially decaying RD behavior � D(R) ∼ c02 −c1R � , thus improving over classic wavelet schemes. We also prove that the computational complexity of the scheme is of O (N log N). We then show the extension of this scheme to the two dimensional (2D) case using a quadtree. This quadtree coding scheme also achieves an exponentially decaying RD behavior, for the polygonal image model composed of a white polygon shaped object against a uniform black background, with low computational cost of O (N log N). Again, the key is an RD optimized prune and join strategy. Finally, we conclude with numerical results, which show that the proposed quadtree coding scheme outperforms JPEG2000 by about 1 dB for real images, like cameraman, at low rates of around 0.15 bpp.
Joint SourceChannel Communication for Distributed Estimation in Sensor Networks
"... Power and bandwidth are scarce resources in dense wireless sensor networks and it is widely recognized that joint optimization of the operations of sensing, processing and communication can result in significant savings in the use of network resources. In this paper, a distributed joint sourcechan ..."
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Cited by 53 (3 self)
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Power and bandwidth are scarce resources in dense wireless sensor networks and it is widely recognized that joint optimization of the operations of sensing, processing and communication can result in significant savings in the use of network resources. In this paper, a distributed joint sourcechannel communication architecture is proposed for energyefficient estimation of sensor field data at a distant destination and the corresponding relationships between power, distortion, and latency are analyzed as a function of number of sensor nodes. The approach is applicable to a broad class of sensed signal fields and is based on distributed computation of appropriately chosen projections of sensor data at the destination – phasecoherent transmissions from the sensor nodes enable exploitation of the distributed beamforming gain for energy efficiency. Random projections are used when little or no prior knowledge is available about the signal field. Distinct features of the proposed scheme include: 1) processing and communication are combined into one distributed projection operation; 2) it virtually eliminates the need for innetwork processing and communication; 3) given sufficient prior knowledge about the sensed data, consistent estimation is possible with increasing sensor density even with vanishing total network power; and 4) consistent signal estimation is possible with power and latency requirements growing at most sublinearly with the number of sensor nodes even when little or no prior knowledge about the sensed data is assumed at the sensor nodes.
Wavelet Footprints: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications
 IEEE Trans. Signal Processing
, 2003
"... In recent years, waveletbased algorithms have been successful in different signal processing tasks. The wavelet transform is a powerful tool because it manages to represent both transient and stationary behaviors of a signal with few transform coefficients. Discontinuities often carry relevant sign ..."
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Cited by 47 (5 self)
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In recent years, waveletbased algorithms have been successful in different signal processing tasks. The wavelet transform is a powerful tool because it manages to represent both transient and stationary behaviors of a signal with few transform coefficients. Discontinuities often carry relevant signal information, and therefore, they represent a critical part to analyze. In this paper, we study the dependency across scales of the wavelet coefficients generated by discontinuities. We start by showing that any piecewise smooth signal can be expressed as a sum of a piecewise polynomial signal and a uniformly smooth residual (see Theorem 1 in Section II). We then introduce the notion of footprints, which are scale space vectors that model discontinuities in piecewise polynomial signals exactly. We show that footprints form an overcomplete dictionary and develop efficient and robust algorithms to find the exact representation of a piecewise polynomial function in terms of footprints. This also leads to efficient approximation of piecewise smooth functions. Finally, we focus on applications and show that algorithms based on footprints outperform standard wavelet methods in different applications such as denoising, compression, and (nonblind) deconvolution. In the case of compression, we also prove that at high rates, footprintbased algorithms attain optimal performance (see Theorem 3 in Section V).
Compressed sensing in astronomy
"... Recent advances in signal processing have focused on the use of sparse representations in various applications. A new field of interest based on sparsity has recently emerged: compressed sensing. This theory is a new sampling framework that provides an alternative to the wellknown Shannon sampling ..."
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Cited by 42 (1 self)
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Recent advances in signal processing have focused on the use of sparse representations in various applications. A new field of interest based on sparsity has recently emerged: compressed sensing. This theory is a new sampling framework that provides an alternative to the wellknown Shannon sampling theory. In this paper we investigate how compressed sensing (CS) can provide new insights into astronomical data compression and more generally how it paves the way for new conceptions in astronomical remote sensing. We first give a brief overview of the compressed sensing theory which provides very simple coding process with low computational cost, thus favoring its use for realtime applications often found on board space mission. We introduce a practical and effective recovery algorithm for decoding compressed data. In astronomy, physical prior information is often crucial for devising effective signal processing methods. We particularly point out that a CSbased compression scheme is flexible enough to account for such information. In this context, compressed sensing is a new framework in which data acquisition and data processing are merged. We show also that CS provides a new fantastic way to handle multiple observations of the same field view, allowing us to recover information at very low signaltonoise ratio, which is impossible with standard compression methods. This CS data fusion concept could lead to an elegant and effective way to solve the problem ESA is faced with, for the transmission to the earth of the data collected by PACS, one of the instruments on board the Herschel spacecraft which will launched in 2008.