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An Integrated Experimental Environment for Distributed Systems and Networks
 In Proc. of the Fifth Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation
, 2002
"... Three experimental environments traditionally support network and distributed systems research: network emulators, network simulators, and live networks. The continued use of multiple approaches highlights both the value and inadequacy of each. Netbed, a descendant of Emulab, provides an experimenta ..."
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Cited by 688 (41 self)
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Three experimental environments traditionally support network and distributed systems research: network emulators, network simulators, and live networks. The continued use of multiple approaches highlights both the value and inadequacy of each. Netbed, a descendant of Emulab, provides an experimentation facility that integrates these approaches, allowing researchers to configure and access networks composed of emulated, simulated, and widearea nodes and links. Netbed's primary goals are ease of use, control, and realism, achieved through consistent use of virtualization and abstraction.
Where the REALLY Hard Problems Are
 IN J. MYLOPOULOS AND R. REITER (EDS.), PROCEEDINGS OF 12TH INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON AI (IJCAI91),VOLUME 1
, 1991
"... It is well known that for many NPcomplete problems, such as KSat, etc., typical cases are easy to solve; so that computationally hard cases must be rare (assuming P != NP). This paper shows that NPcomplete problems can be summarized by at least one "order parameter", and that the hard p ..."
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Cited by 683 (1 self)
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It is well known that for many NPcomplete problems, such as KSat, etc., typical cases are easy to solve; so that computationally hard cases must be rare (assuming P != NP). This paper shows that NPcomplete problems can be summarized by at least one "order parameter", and that the hard problems occur at a critical value of such a parameter. This critical value separates two regions of characteristically different properties. For example, for Kcolorability, the critical value separates overconstrained from underconstrained random graphs, and it marks the value at which the probability of a solution changes abruptly from near 0 to near 1. It is the high density of wellseparated almost solutions (local minima) at this boundary that cause search algorithms to "thrash". This boundary is a type of phase transition and we show that it is preserved under mappings between problems. We show that for some P problems either there is no phase transition or it occurs for bounded N (and so bound...
How bad is selfish routing?
 JOURNAL OF THE ACM
, 2002
"... We consider the problem of routing traffic to optimize the performance of a congested network. We are given a network, a rate of traffic between each pair of nodes, and a latency function for each edge specifying the time needed to traverse the edge given its congestion; the objective is to route t ..."
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Cited by 657 (27 self)
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We consider the problem of routing traffic to optimize the performance of a congested network. We are given a network, a rate of traffic between each pair of nodes, and a latency function for each edge specifying the time needed to traverse the edge given its congestion; the objective is to route traffic such that the sum of all travel times—the total latency—is minimized. In many settings, it may be expensive or impossible to regulate network traffic so as to implement an optimal assignment of routes. In the absence of regulation by some central authority, we assume that each network user routes its traffic on the minimumlatency path available to it, given the network congestion caused by the other users. In general such a “selfishly motivated ” assignment of traffic to paths will not minimize the total latency; hence, this lack of regulation carries the cost of decreased network performance. In this article, we quantify the degradation in network performance due to unregulated traffic. We prove that if the latency of each edge is a linear function of its congestion, then the total latency of the routes chosen by selfish network users is at most 4/3 times the minimum possible total latency (subject to the condition that all traffic must be routed). We also consider the more general setting in which edge latency functions are assumed only to be continuous and nondecreasing in the edge congestion. Here, the total
Selection of relevant features and examples in machine learning
 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
, 1997
"... In this survey, we review work in machine learning on methods for handling data sets containing large amounts of irrelevant information. We focus on two key issues: the problem of selecting relevant features, and the problem of selecting relevant examples. We describe the advances that have been mad ..."
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Cited by 606 (2 self)
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In this survey, we review work in machine learning on methods for handling data sets containing large amounts of irrelevant information. We focus on two key issues: the problem of selecting relevant features, and the problem of selecting relevant examples. We describe the advances that have been made on these topics in both empirical and theoretical work in machine learning, and we present a general framework that we use to compare different methods. We close with some challenges for future work in this area.
Coclustering documents and words using Bipartite Spectral Graph Partitioning
, 2001
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A Scalable, Commodity Data Center Network Architecture
, 2008
"... Today’s data centers may contain tens of thousands of computers with significant aggregate bandwidth requirements. The network architecture typically consists of a tree of routing and switching elements with progressively more specialized and expensive equipment moving up the network hierarchy. Unfo ..."
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Cited by 466 (18 self)
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Today’s data centers may contain tens of thousands of computers with significant aggregate bandwidth requirements. The network architecture typically consists of a tree of routing and switching elements with progressively more specialized and expensive equipment moving up the network hierarchy. Unfortunately, even when deploying the highestend IP switches/routers, resulting topologies may only support 50 % of the aggregate bandwidth available at the edge of the network, while still incurring tremendous cost. Nonuniform bandwidth among data center nodes complicates application design and limits overall system performance. In this paper, we show how to leverage largely commodity Ethernet switches to support the full aggregate bandwidth of clusters consisting of tens of thousands of elements. Similar to how clusters of commodity computers have largely replaced more specialized SMPs and MPPs, we argue that appropriately architected and interconnected commodity switches may deliver more performance at less cost than available from today’s higherend solutions. Our approach requires no modifications to the end host network interface, operating system, or applications; critically, it is fully backward compatible with Ethernet, IP, and TCP.
Adaptive Display Algorithm for Interactive Frame Rates During Visualization of Complex Virtual Environments
, 1993
"... We describe an adaptive display algorithm for interactive frame rates during visualization of very complex virtual environments. The algorithm relies upon a hierarchical model representation in which objects are described at multiple levels of detail and can be drawn with various rendering algorithm ..."
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Cited by 450 (10 self)
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We describe an adaptive display algorithm for interactive frame rates during visualization of very complex virtual environments. The algorithm relies upon a hierarchical model representation in which objects are described at multiple levels of detail and can be drawn with various rendering algorithms. The idea behind the algorithm is to adjust image quality adaptively to maintain a uniform, userspecified target frame rate. We perform a constrained optimization to choose a level of detail and rendering algorithm for each potentially visible object in order to generate the "best" image possible within the target frame time. Tests show that the algorithm generates more uniform frame rates than other previously described detail elision algorithms with little noticeable difference in image quality during visualization of complex models. CR Categories and Subject Descriptors: [Computer Graphics]: I.3.3 Picture/Image Generation  viewing algorithms; I.3.5 Computational Geometry and Object...
Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms: Analyzing the StateoftheArt
, 2000
"... Solving optimization problems with multiple (often conflicting) objectives is, generally, a very difficult goal. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) were initially extended and applied during the mideighties in an attempt to stochastically solve problems of this generic class. During the past decade, ..."
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Cited by 440 (7 self)
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Solving optimization problems with multiple (often conflicting) objectives is, generally, a very difficult goal. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) were initially extended and applied during the mideighties in an attempt to stochastically solve problems of this generic class. During the past decade, a variety of multiobjective EA (MOEA) techniques have been proposed and applied to many scientific and engineering applications. Our discussion's intent is to rigorously define multiobjective optimization problems and certain related concepts, present an MOEA classification scheme, and evaluate the variety of contemporary MOEAs. Current MOEA theoretical developments are evaluated; specific topics addressed include fitness functions, Pareto ranking, niching, fitness sharing, mating restriction, and secondary populations. Since the development and application of MOEAs is a dynamic and rapidly growing activity, we focus on key analytical insights based upon critical MOEA evaluation of c...
Complex networks: Structure and dynamics
, 2006
"... Coupled biological and chemical systems, neural networks, social interacting species, the Internet and the World Wide Web, are only a few examples of systems composed by a large number of highly interconnected dynamical units. The first approach to capture the global properties of such systems is t ..."
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Cited by 435 (12 self)
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Coupled biological and chemical systems, neural networks, social interacting species, the Internet and the World Wide Web, are only a few examples of systems composed by a large number of highly interconnected dynamical units. The first approach to capture the global properties of such systems is to model them as graphs whose nodes represent the dynamical units, and whose links stand for the interactions between them. On the one hand, scientists have to cope with structural issues, such as characterizing the topology of a complex wiring architecture, revealing the unifying principles that are at the basis of real networks, and developing models to mimic the growth of a network and reproduce its structural properties. On the other hand, many relevant questions arise when studying complex networks ’ dynamics, such as learning how a large ensemble of dynamical systems that interact through a complex wiring topology can behave collectively. We review the major concepts and results recently achieved in the study of the structure and dynamics of complex networks, and summarize the relevant applications of these ideas in many different disciplines,
A PolynomialTime Approximation Algorithm for the Permanent of a Matrix with NonNegative Entries
 JOURNAL OF THE ACM
, 2004
"... We present a polynomialtime randomized algorithm for estimating the permanent of an arbitrary n ×n matrix with nonnegative entries. This algorithm—technically a “fullypolynomial randomized approximation scheme”—computes an approximation that is, with high probability, within arbitrarily small spec ..."
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Cited by 427 (27 self)
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We present a polynomialtime randomized algorithm for estimating the permanent of an arbitrary n ×n matrix with nonnegative entries. This algorithm—technically a “fullypolynomial randomized approximation scheme”—computes an approximation that is, with high probability, within arbitrarily small specified relative error of the true value of the permanent.