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Tensor Decompositions and Applications
 SIAM REVIEW
, 2009
"... This survey provides an overview of higherorder tensor decompositions, their applications, and available software. A tensor is a multidimensional or N way array. Decompositions of higherorder tensors (i.e., N way arrays with N â¥ 3) have applications in psychometrics, chemometrics, signal proce ..."
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This survey provides an overview of higherorder tensor decompositions, their applications, and available software. A tensor is a multidimensional or N way array. Decompositions of higherorder tensors (i.e., N way arrays with N â¥ 3) have applications in psychometrics, chemometrics, signal processing, numerical linear algebra, computer vision, numerical analysis, data mining, neuroscience, graph analysis, etc. Two particular tensor decompositions can be considered to be higherorder extensions of the matrix singular value decompo
sition: CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) decomposes a tensor as a sum of rankone tensors, and the Tucker decomposition is a higherorder form of principal components analysis. There are many other tensor decompositions, including INDSCAL, PARAFAC2, CANDELINC, DEDICOM, and PARATUCK2 as well as nonnegative variants of all of the above. The Nway Toolbox and Tensor Toolbox, both for MATLAB, and the Multilinear Engine are examples of software packages for working with tensors.
The Convex Geometry of Linear Inverse Problems
, 2010
"... In applications throughout science and engineering one is often faced with the challenge of solving an illposed inverse problem, where the number of available measurements is smaller than the dimension of the model to be estimated. However in many practical situations of interest, models are constr ..."
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Cited by 189 (20 self)
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In applications throughout science and engineering one is often faced with the challenge of solving an illposed inverse problem, where the number of available measurements is smaller than the dimension of the model to be estimated. However in many practical situations of interest, models are constrained structurally so that they only have a few degrees of freedom relative to their ambient dimension. This paper provides a general framework to convert notions of simplicity into convex penalty functions, resulting in convex optimization solutions to linear, underdetermined inverse problems. The class of simple models considered are those formed as the sum of a few atoms from some (possibly infinite) elementary atomic set; examples include wellstudied cases such as sparse vectors (e.g., signal processing, statistics) and lowrank matrices (e.g., control, statistics), as well as several others including sums of a few permutations matrices (e.g., ranked elections, multiobject tracking), lowrank tensors (e.g., computer vision, neuroscience), orthogonal matrices (e.g., machine learning), and atomic measures (e.g., system identification). The convex programming formulation is based on minimizing the norm induced by the convex hull of the atomic set; this norm is referred to as the atomic norm. The facial
Hierarchical singular value decomposition of tensors
 SIAM Journal on Matrix Analysis and Applications
"... Abstract. We define the hierarchical singular value decomposition (SVD) for tensors of order d ≥ 2. This hierarchical SVD has properties like the matrix SVD (and collapses to the SVD in d = 2), and we prove these. In particular, one can find low rank (almost) best approximations in a hierarchical fo ..."
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Cited by 178 (11 self)
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Abstract. We define the hierarchical singular value decomposition (SVD) for tensors of order d ≥ 2. This hierarchical SVD has properties like the matrix SVD (and collapses to the SVD in d = 2), and we prove these. In particular, one can find low rank (almost) best approximations in a hierarchical format (HTucker) which requires only O((d − 1)k3 + dnk) parameters, where d is the order of the tensor, n the size of the modes and k the (hierarchical) rank. The HTucker format is a specialization of the Tucker format and it contains as a special case all (canonical) rank k tensors. Based on this new concept of a hierarchical SVD we present algorithms for hierarchical tensor calculations allowing for a rigorous error analysis. The complexity of the truncation (finding lower rank approximations to hierarchical rank k tensors) is in O((d−1)k4+dnk2) and the attainable accuracy is just 2–3 digits less than machine precision.
Polynomial Approximation in Hierarchical Tucker Format by VectorTensorization
, 2010
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Symmetric tensors and symmetric tensor rank
 Scientific Computing and Computational Mathematics (SCCM
, 2006
"... Abstract. A symmetric tensor is a higher order generalization of a symmetric matrix. In this paper, we study various properties of symmetric tensors in relation to a decomposition into a symmetric sum of outer product of vectors. A rank1 orderk tensor is the outer product of k nonzero vectors. An ..."
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Cited by 99 (20 self)
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Abstract. A symmetric tensor is a higher order generalization of a symmetric matrix. In this paper, we study various properties of symmetric tensors in relation to a decomposition into a symmetric sum of outer product of vectors. A rank1 orderk tensor is the outer product of k nonzero vectors. Any symmetric tensor can be decomposed into a linear combination of rank1 tensors, each of them being symmetric or not. The rank of a symmetric tensor is the minimal number of rank1 tensors that is necessary to reconstruct it. The symmetric rank is obtained when the constituting rank1 tensors are imposed to be themselves symmetric. It is shown that rank and symmetric rank are equal in a number of cases, and that they always exist in an algebraically closed field. We will discuss the notion of the generic symmetric rank, which, due to the work of Alexander and Hirschowitz, is now known for any values of dimension and order. We will also show that the set of symmetric tensors of symmetric rank at most r is not closed, unless r = 1. Key words. Tensors, multiway arrays, outer product decomposition, symmetric outer product decomposition, candecomp, parafac, tensor rank, symmetric rank, symmetric tensor rank, generic symmetric rank, maximal symmetric rank, quantics AMS subject classifications. 15A03, 15A21, 15A72, 15A69, 15A18 1. Introduction. We
Local Convergence of the Alternating Least Squares Algorithm For Canonical Tensor Approximation
, 2011
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On local convergence of alternating schemes for optimization of convex problems in the tensor train format
 SIAM J. Numer. Anal
"... Abstract. Alternating linear schemes (ALS), with the Alternating Least Squares algorithm a notable special case, provide one of the simplest and most popular choices for the treatment of optimization tasks by tensor methods. An according adaptation of ALS for the recent TT ( = tensor train) format ( ..."
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Cited by 56 (4 self)
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Abstract. Alternating linear schemes (ALS), with the Alternating Least Squares algorithm a notable special case, provide one of the simplest and most popular choices for the treatment of optimization tasks by tensor methods. An according adaptation of ALS for the recent TT ( = tensor train) format (Oseledets, 2011), known in quantum computations as matrix product states, has recently been investigated in (Holtz, Rohwedder, Schneider, 2012). With the present work, the positive practical experience with TTALS is backed up with an according local linear convergence theory for the optimization of convex functionals J. The main assumption entering the proof is that the redundancy introduced by the TT parametrization τ matches the null space of the Hessian of the induced functional j = J ◦ τ, and we give conditions under which this assumption can be expected to hold. In particular, this is the case if the TT rank has been correctly estimated. The case of nonconvex functionals J is also shortly discussed. Key words. ALS, highdimensional optimization, local convergence, matrix product states, nonlinear GaussSeidel, tensor product approximation, TT decomposition AMS subject classifications. 15A69, 65K10, 90C06
ON THE RANKS AND BORDER RANKS OF SYMMETRIC TENSORS
"... Abstract. Motivated by questions arising in signal processing, computational complexity, and other areas, we study the ranks and border ranks of symmetric tensors using geometric methods. We provide improved lower bounds for the rank of a symmetric tensor (i.e., a homogeneous polynomial) obtained by ..."
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Cited by 48 (8 self)
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Abstract. Motivated by questions arising in signal processing, computational complexity, and other areas, we study the ranks and border ranks of symmetric tensors using geometric methods. We provide improved lower bounds for the rank of a symmetric tensor (i.e., a homogeneous polynomial) obtained by considering the singularities of the hypersurface defined by the polynomial. We obtain normal forms for polynomials of border rank up to five, and compute or bound the ranks of several classes of polynomials, including monomials, the determinant, and the permanent. 1.
Most tensor problems are NP hard
 CORR
, 2009
"... The idea that one might extend numerical linear algebra, the collection of matrix computational methods that form the workhorse of scientific and engineering computing, to numerical multilinear algebra, an analogous collection of tools involving hypermatrices/tensors, appears very promising and has ..."
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Cited by 45 (6 self)
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The idea that one might extend numerical linear algebra, the collection of matrix computational methods that form the workhorse of scientific and engineering computing, to numerical multilinear algebra, an analogous collection of tools involving hypermatrices/tensors, appears very promising and has attracted a lot of attention recently. We examine here the computational tractability of some core problems in numerical multilinear algebra. We show that tensor analogues of several standard problems that are readily computable in the matrix (i.e. 2tensor) case are NP hard. Our list here includes: determining the feasibility of a system of bilinear equations, determining an eigenvalue, a singular value, or the spectral norm of a 3tensor, determining a best rank1 approximation to a 3tensor, determining the rank of a 3tensor over R or C. Hence making tensor computations feasible is likely to be a challenge.