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192
Hyperspectral unmixing overview: Geometrical, statistical, and sparse regressionbased approaches
 IEEE J. SEL. TOPICS APPL. EARTH OBSERV. REMOTE SENS
, 2012
"... Imaging spectrometers measure electromagnetic energy scattered in their instantaneous field view in hundreds or thousands of spectral channels with higher spectral resolution than multispectral cameras. Imaging spectrometers are therefore often referred to as hyperspectral cameras (HSCs). Higher sp ..."
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Cited by 103 (34 self)
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Imaging spectrometers measure electromagnetic energy scattered in their instantaneous field view in hundreds or thousands of spectral channels with higher spectral resolution than multispectral cameras. Imaging spectrometers are therefore often referred to as hyperspectral cameras (HSCs). Higher spectral resolution enables material identification via spectroscopic analysis, which facilitates countless applications that require identifying materials in scenarios unsuitable for classical spectroscopic analysis. Due to low spatial resolution of HSCs, microscopic material mixing, and multiple scattering, spectra measured by HSCs are mixtures of spectra of materials in a scene. Thus, accurate estimation requires unmixing. Pixels are assumed to be mixtures of a few materials, called endmembers. Unmixing involves estimating all or some of: the number of endmembers, their spectral signatures, and their abundances at each pixel. Unmixing is a challenging, illposed
Joint Bayesian Endmember Extraction and Linear Unmixing for Hyperspectral Imagery
"... Abstract—This paper studies a fully Bayesian algorithm for endmember extraction and abundance estimation for hyperspectral imagery. Each pixel of the hyperspectral image is decomposed as a linear combination of pure endmember spectra following the linear mixing model. The estimation of the unknown e ..."
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Cited by 67 (29 self)
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Abstract—This paper studies a fully Bayesian algorithm for endmember extraction and abundance estimation for hyperspectral imagery. Each pixel of the hyperspectral image is decomposed as a linear combination of pure endmember spectra following the linear mixing model. The estimation of the unknown endmember spectra is conducted in a unified manner by generating the posterior distribution of abundances and endmember parameters under a hierarchical Bayesian model. This model assumes conjugate prior distributions for these parameters, accounts for nonnegativity and fulladditivity constraints, and exploits the fact that the endmember proportions lie on a lower dimensional simplex. A Gibbs sampler is proposed to overcome the complexity of evaluating the resulting posterior distribution. This sampler generates samples distributed according to the posterior distribution and estimates the unknown parameters using these generated samples. The accuracy of the joint Bayesian estimator is illustrated by simulations conducted on synthetic and real AVIRIS images. Index Terms—Bayesian inference, endmember extraction, hyperspectral imagery, linear spectral unmixing, MCMC methods. I.
MINIMUM VOLUME SIMPLEX ANALYSIS: A FAST ALGORITHM TO UNMIX HYPERSPECTRAL DATA
"... This paper presents a new method of minimum volume class for hyperspectral unmixing, termed minimum volume simplex analysis (MVSA). The underlying mixing model is linear; i.e., the mixed hyperspectral vectors are modeled by a linear mixture of the endmember signatures weighted by the correspondent a ..."
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Cited by 55 (11 self)
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This paper presents a new method of minimum volume class for hyperspectral unmixing, termed minimum volume simplex analysis (MVSA). The underlying mixing model is linear; i.e., the mixed hyperspectral vectors are modeled by a linear mixture of the endmember signatures weighted by the correspondent abundance fractions. MVSA approaches hyperspectral unmixing by fitting a minimum volume simplex to the hyperspectral data, constraining the abundance fractions to belong to the probability simplex. The resulting optimization problem is solved by implementing a sequence of quadratically constrained subproblems. In a final step, the hard constraint on the abundance fractions is replaced with a hinge type loss function to account for outliers and noise. We illustrate the stateoftheart performance of the MVSA algorithm in unmixing simulated data sets. We are mainly concerning with the realistic scenario in which the pure pixel assumption (i.e., there exists at least one pure pixel per endmember) is not fulfilled. In these conditions, the MVSA yields much better performance than the pure pixel based algorithms. Index Terms — Hyperspectral unmixing, Minimum volume simplex, Source separation.
Sparse unmixing of hyperspectral data
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING
, 2011
"... Linear spectral unmixing is a popular tool in remotely sensed hyperspectral data interpretation. It aims at estimating the fractional abundances of pure spectral signatures (also called as endmembers) in each mixed pixel collected by an imaging spectrometer. In many situations, the identification o ..."
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Cited by 51 (15 self)
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Linear spectral unmixing is a popular tool in remotely sensed hyperspectral data interpretation. It aims at estimating the fractional abundances of pure spectral signatures (also called as endmembers) in each mixed pixel collected by an imaging spectrometer. In many situations, the identification of the endmember signatures in the original data set may be challenging due to insufficient spatial resolution, mixtures happening at different scales, and unavailability of completely pure spectral signatures in the scene. However, the unmixing problem can also be approached in semisupervised fashion, i.e., by assuming that the observed image signatures can be expressed in the form of linear combinations of a number of pure spectral signatures known in advance (e.g., spectra collected on the ground by a field spectroradiometer). Unmixing then amounts to finding the optimal subset of signatures in a (potentially very large) spectral library that can best model
Semisupervised linear spectral unmixing using a hierarchical Bayesian model for hyperspectral imagery
, 2008
"... This paper proposes a hierarchical Bayesian model that can be used for semisupervised hyperspectral image unmixing. The model assumes that the pixel reflectances result from linear combinations of pure component spectra contaminated by an additive Gaussian noise. The abundance parameters appearing ..."
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Cited by 50 (25 self)
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This paper proposes a hierarchical Bayesian model that can be used for semisupervised hyperspectral image unmixing. The model assumes that the pixel reflectances result from linear combinations of pure component spectra contaminated by an additive Gaussian noise. The abundance parameters appearing in this model satisfy positivity and additivity constraints. These constraints are naturally expressed in a Bayesian context by using appropriate abundance prior distributions. The posterior distributions of the unknown model parameters are then derived. A Gibbs sampler allows one to draw samples distributed according to the posteriors of interest and to estimate the unknown abundances. An extension of the algorithm is finally studied for mixtures with unknown numbers of spectral components belonging to a know library. The performance of the different unmixing strategies is evaluated via simulations conducted on synthetic and real data.
Nonlinear unmixing of hyperspectral images using a generalized bilinear model
 IEEE Trans. Geosci. and Remote Sensing
"... Nonlinear models have recently shown interesting properties for spectral unmixing. This paper considers a generalized bilinear model recently introduced for unmixing hyperspectral images. Different algorithms are studied to estimate the parameters of this bilinear model. The positivity and sumtoon ..."
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Cited by 41 (21 self)
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Nonlinear models have recently shown interesting properties for spectral unmixing. This paper considers a generalized bilinear model recently introduced for unmixing hyperspectral images. Different algorithms are studied to estimate the parameters of this bilinear model. The positivity and sumtoone constraints for the abundances are ensured by the proposed algorithms. The performance of the resulting unmixing strategy is evaluated via simulations conducted on synthetic and real data. Index Terms — hyperspectral imagery, spectral unmixing, bilinear model, Bayesian inference, MCMC methods, gradient descent algorithm, least square algorithm. 1.
A variable splitting augmented Lagrangian approach to linear spectral unmixing
 In First IEEE Workshop on Hyperspectral Imaging and Signal Processing: Evolution in Remote Sensing
, 2009
"... This paper presents a new linear hyperspectral unmixing method of the minimum volume class, termed simplex identification via split augmented Lagrangian (SISAL). Following Craig’s seminal ideas, hyperspectral linear unmixing amounts to finding the minimum volume simplex containing the hyperspectral ..."
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Cited by 41 (8 self)
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This paper presents a new linear hyperspectral unmixing method of the minimum volume class, termed simplex identification via split augmented Lagrangian (SISAL). Following Craig’s seminal ideas, hyperspectral linear unmixing amounts to finding the minimum volume simplex containing the hyperspectral vectors. This is a nonconvex optimization problem with convex constraints. In the proposed approach, the positivity constraints, forcing the spectral vectors to belong to the convex hull of the endmember signatures, are replaced by soft constraints. The obtained problem is solved by a sequence of augmented Lagrangian optimizations. The resulting algorithm is very fast and able so solve problems far beyond the reach of the current stateofthe art algorithms. The effectiveness of SISAL is illustrated with simulated data. Index Terms — Hyperspectral unmixing, Minimum volume simplex, Variable Splitting augmented Lagrangian, nonsmooth optimization.
Regionbased spatial preprocessing for endmember extraction and spectral unmixing
 IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett
, 2011
"... In this paper, we develop a new spatial preprocessing strategy which can be applied prior to a spectralbased endmember extraction process for unmixing of hyperspectral data. Our proposed approach directs the endmember searching process to regions which are both spectrally pure and spatially homoge ..."
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Cited by 35 (11 self)
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In this paper, we develop a new spatial preprocessing strategy which can be applied prior to a spectralbased endmember extraction process for unmixing of hyperspectral data. Our proposed approach directs the endmember searching process to regions which are both spectrally pure and spatially homogeneous in the scene. Our experimental results, conducted using simulated hyperspectral data sets with known endmembers and fractional abundances, reveal that the proposed approach can successfully integrate the spatial and spectral information in the search for more relevant endmembers. Index Terms — Spectral unmixing, endmember extraction, spatialspectral integration.
A Convex AnalysisBased MinimumVolume Enclosing Simplex Algorithm for Hyperspectral Unmixing
, 2009
"... Hyperspectral unmixing aims at identifying the hidden spectral signatures (or endmembers) and their corresponding proportions (or abundances) from an observed hyperspectral scene. Many existing hyperspectral unmixing algorithms were developed under a commonly used assumption that pure pixels exis ..."
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Cited by 31 (1 self)
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Hyperspectral unmixing aims at identifying the hidden spectral signatures (or endmembers) and their corresponding proportions (or abundances) from an observed hyperspectral scene. Many existing hyperspectral unmixing algorithms were developed under a commonly used assumption that pure pixels exist. However, the purepixel assumption may be seriously violated for highly mixed data. Based on intuitive grounds, Craig reported an unmixing criterion without requiring the purepixel assumption, which estimates the endmembers by vertices of a minimumvolume simplex enclosing all the observed pixels. In this paper, we incorporate convex analysis and Craig’s criterion to develop a minimumvolume enclosing simplex (MVES) formulation for hyperspectral unmixing. A cyclic minimization algorithm for approximating the MVES problem is developed using linear programs (LPs), which can be practically implemented by readily available LP solvers. We also provide a nonheuristic guarantee of our MVES problem formulation, where the existence of pure pixels is proved to be a sufficient condition for MVES to perfectly identify the true endmembers. Some Monte Carlo simulations and real data experiments are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed MVES algorithm over several existing hyperspectral unmixing methods.