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554
ATOMIC DECOMPOSITION BY BASIS PURSUIT
, 1995
"... The TimeFrequency and TimeScale communities have recently developed a large number of overcomplete waveform dictionaries  stationary wavelets, wavelet packets, cosine packets, chirplets, and warplets, to name a few. Decomposition into overcomplete systems is not unique, and several methods for d ..."
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Cited by 2725 (61 self)
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The TimeFrequency and TimeScale communities have recently developed a large number of overcomplete waveform dictionaries  stationary wavelets, wavelet packets, cosine packets, chirplets, and warplets, to name a few. Decomposition into overcomplete systems is not unique, and several methods for decomposition have been proposed, including the Method of Frames (MOF), Matching Pursuit (MP), and, for special dictionaries, the Best Orthogonal Basis (BOB). Basis Pursuit (BP) is a principle for decomposing a signal into an "optimal" superposition of dictionary elements, where optimal means having the smallest l 1 norm of coefficients among all such decompositions. We give examples exhibiting several advantages over MOF, MP and BOB, including better sparsity, and superresolution. BP has interesting relations to ideas in areas as diverse as illposed problems, in abstract harmonic analysis, total variation denoising, and multiscale edge denoising. Basis Pursuit in highly overcomplete dictionaries leads to largescale optimization problems. With signals of length 8192 and a wavelet packet dictionary, one gets an equivalent linear program of size 8192 by 212,992. Such problems can be attacked successfully only because of recent advances in linear programming by interiorpoint methods. We obtain reasonable success with a primaldual logarithmic barrier method and conjugategradient solver.
Image Quality Assessment: From Error Visibility to Structural Similarity
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING
, 2004
"... Objective methods for assessing perceptual image quality have traditionally attempted to quantify the visibility of errors between a distorted image and a reference image using a variety of known properties of the human visual system. Under the assumption that human visual perception is highly adapt ..."
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Cited by 1498 (114 self)
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Objective methods for assessing perceptual image quality have traditionally attempted to quantify the visibility of errors between a distorted image and a reference image using a variety of known properties of the human visual system. Under the assumption that human visual perception is highly adapted for extracting structural information from a scene, we introduce an alternative framework for quality assessment based on the degradation of structural information. As a specific example of this concept, we develop a Structural Similarity Index and demonstrate its promise through a set of intuitive examples, as well as comparison to both subjective ratings and stateoftheart objective methods on a database of images compressed with JPEG and JPEG2000.
DeNoising By SoftThresholding
, 1992
"... Donoho and Johnstone (1992a) proposed a method for reconstructing an unknown function f on [0; 1] from noisy data di = f(ti)+ zi, iid i =0;:::;n 1, ti = i=n, zi N(0; 1). The reconstruction fn ^ is de ned in the wavelet domain by translating all the empirical wavelet coe cients of d towards 0 by an a ..."
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Cited by 1278 (14 self)
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Donoho and Johnstone (1992a) proposed a method for reconstructing an unknown function f on [0; 1] from noisy data di = f(ti)+ zi, iid i =0;:::;n 1, ti = i=n, zi N(0; 1). The reconstruction fn ^ is de ned in the wavelet domain by translating all the empirical wavelet coe cients of d towards 0 by an amount p 2 log(n) = p n. We prove two results about that estimator. [Smooth]: With high probability ^ fn is at least as smooth as f, in any of a wide variety of smoothness measures. [Adapt]: The estimator comes nearly as close in mean square to f as any measurable estimator can come, uniformly over balls in each of two broad scales of smoothness classes. These two properties are unprecedented in several ways. Our proof of these results develops new facts about abstract statistical inference and its connection with an optimal recovery model.
The Lumigraph
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF SIGGRAPH 96
, 1996
"... This paper discusses a new method for capturing the complete appearanceof both synthetic and real world objects and scenes, representing this information, and then using this representation to render images of the object from new camera positions. Unlike the shape capture process traditionally used ..."
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Cited by 1025 (39 self)
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This paper discusses a new method for capturing the complete appearanceof both synthetic and real world objects and scenes, representing this information, and then using this representation to render images of the object from new camera positions. Unlike the shape capture process traditionally used in computer vision and the rendering process traditionally used in computer graphics, our approach does not rely on geometric representations. Instead we sample and reconstruct a 4D function, which we call a Lumigraph. The Lumigraph is a subset of the complete plenoptic function that describes the flow of light at all positions in all directions. With the Lumigraph, new images of the object can be generated very quickly, independent of the geometric or illumination complexity of the scene or object. The paper discusses a complete working system including the capture of samples, the construction of the Lumigraph, and the subsequent rendering of images from this new representation.
Sparse coding with an overcomplete basis set: a strategy employed by V1
 Vision Research
, 1997
"... The spatial receptive fields of simple cells in mammalian striate cortex have been reasonably well described physiologically and can be characterized as being localized, oriented, and ban@ass, comparable with the basis functions of wavelet transforms. Previously, we have shown that these receptive f ..."
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Cited by 959 (9 self)
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The spatial receptive fields of simple cells in mammalian striate cortex have been reasonably well described physiologically and can be characterized as being localized, oriented, and ban@ass, comparable with the basis functions of wavelet transforms. Previously, we have shown that these receptive field properties may be accounted for in terms of a strategy for producing a sparse distribution of output activity in response to natural images. Here, in addition to describing this work in a more expansive fashion, we examine the neurobiological implications of sparse coding. Of particular interest is the case when the code is overcompletei.e., when the number of code elements is greater than the effective dimensionality of the input space. Because the basis functions are nonorthogonal and not linearly independent of each other, sparsifying the code will recruit only those basis functions necessary for representing a given input, and so the inputoutput function will deviate from being purely linear. These deviations from linearity provide a potential explanation for the weak forms of nonlinearity observed in the response properties of cortical simple cells, and they further make predictions about the expected interactions among units in
KSVD: An Algorithm for Designing Overcomplete Dictionaries for Sparse Representation
, 2006
"... In recent years there has been a growing interest in the study of sparse representation of signals. Using an overcomplete dictionary that contains prototype signalatoms, signals are described by sparse linear combinations of these atoms. Applications that use sparse representation are many and inc ..."
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Cited by 940 (41 self)
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In recent years there has been a growing interest in the study of sparse representation of signals. Using an overcomplete dictionary that contains prototype signalatoms, signals are described by sparse linear combinations of these atoms. Applications that use sparse representation are many and include compression, regularization in inverse problems, feature extraction, and more. Recent activity in this field has concentrated mainly on the study of pursuit algorithms that decompose signals with respect to a given dictionary. Designing dictionaries to better fit the above model can be done by either selecting one from a prespecified set of linear transforms or adapting the dictionary to a set of training signals. Both of these techniques have been considered, but this topic is largely still open. In this paper we propose a novel algorithm for adapting dictionaries in order to achieve sparse signal representations. Given a set of training signals, we seek the dictionary that leads to the best representation for each member in this set, under strict sparsity constraints. We present a new method—the KSVD algorithm—generalizing the umeans clustering process. KSVD is an iterative method that alternates between sparse coding of the examples based on the current dictionary and a process of updating the dictionary atoms to better fit the data. The update of the dictionary columns is combined with an update of the sparse representations, thereby accelerating convergence. The KSVD algorithm is flexible and can work with any pursuit method (e.g., basis pursuit, FOCUSS, or matching pursuit). We analyze this algorithm and demonstrate its results both on synthetic tests and in applications on real image data.
A saliencybased search mechanism for overt and covert shifts of visual attention
, 2000
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The Contourlet Transform: An Efficient Directional Multiresolution Image Representation
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING
"... The limitations of commonly used separable extensions of onedimensional transforms, such as the Fourier and wavelet transforms, in capturing the geometry of image edges are well known. In this paper, we pursue a “true” twodimensional transform that can capture the intrinsic geometrical structure t ..."
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Cited by 519 (20 self)
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The limitations of commonly used separable extensions of onedimensional transforms, such as the Fourier and wavelet transforms, in capturing the geometry of image edges are well known. In this paper, we pursue a “true” twodimensional transform that can capture the intrinsic geometrical structure that is key in visual information. The main challenge in exploring geometry in images comes from the discrete nature of the data. Thus, unlike other approaches, such as curvelets, that first develop a transform in the continuous domain and then discretize for sampled data, our approach starts with a discretedomain construction and then studies its convergence to an expansion in the continuous domain. Specifically, we construct a discretedomain multiresolution and multidirection expansion using nonseparable filter banks, in much the same way that wavelets were derived from filter banks. This construction results in a flexible multiresolution, local, and directional image expansion using contour segments, and thus it is named the contourlet transform. The discrete contourlet transform has a fast iterated filter bank algorithm that requires an order N operations for Npixel images. Furthermore, we establish a precise link between the developed filter bank and the associated continuousdomain contourlet expansion via a directional multiresolution analysis framework. We show that with parabolic scaling and sufficient directional vanishing moments, contourlets achieve the optimal approximation rate for piecewise smooth functions with discontinuities along twice continuously differentiable curves. Finally, we show some numerical experiments demonstrating the potential of contourlets in several image processing applications.
Image denoising using a scale mixture of Gaussians in the wavelet domain
 IEEE TRANS IMAGE PROCESSING
, 2003
"... We describe a method for removing noise from digital images, based on a statistical model of the coefficients of an overcomplete multiscale oriented basis. Neighborhoods of coefficients at adjacent positions and scales are modeled as the product of two independent random variables: a Gaussian vecto ..."
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Cited by 512 (17 self)
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We describe a method for removing noise from digital images, based on a statistical model of the coefficients of an overcomplete multiscale oriented basis. Neighborhoods of coefficients at adjacent positions and scales are modeled as the product of two independent random variables: a Gaussian vector and a hidden positive scalar multiplier. The latter modulates the local variance of the coefficients in the neighborhood, and is thus able to account for the empirically observed correlation between the coefficient amplitudes. Under this model, the Bayesian least squares estimate of each coefficient reduces to a weighted average of the local linear estimates over all possible values of the hidden multiplier variable. We demonstrate through simulations with images contaminated by additive white Gaussian noise that the performance of this method substantially surpasses that of previously published methods, both visually and in terms of mean squared error.