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12
Strict language inequalities and their decision problems
 Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2005
, 2005
"... Abstract. Systems of language equations of the form {ϕ(X1,..., Xn) = ∅, ψ(X1,..., Xn) � = ∅} are studied, where ϕ, ψ may contain settheoretic operations and concatenation; they can be equivalently represented as strict inequalities ξ(X1,..., Xn) ⊂ L0. It is proved that the problem whether such an ..."
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Abstract. Systems of language equations of the form {ϕ(X1,..., Xn) = ∅, ψ(X1,..., Xn) � = ∅} are studied, where ϕ, ψ may contain settheoretic operations and concatenation; they can be equivalently represented as strict inequalities ξ(X1,..., Xn) ⊂ L0. It is proved that the problem whether such an inequality has a solution is Σ2complete, the problem whether it has a unique solution is in (Σ3 ∩Π3)\(Σ2 ∪Π2), the existence of a regular solution is a Σ1complete problem, while testing whether there are finitely many solutions is Σ3complete. The class of languages representable by their unique solutions is exactly the class of recursive sets, though a decision procedure cannot be algorithmically constructed out of an inequality, even if a proof of solution uniqueness is attached. 1
COMPLEXITY OF SOLUTIONS OF EQUATIONS OVER SETS OF NATURAL NUMBERS
, 2008
"... Systems of equations over sets of natural numbers (or, equivalently, language equations over a oneletter alphabet) of the form Xi = ϕi(X1,..., Xn) (1 � i � n) are considered. Expressions ϕi may contain the operations of union, intersection and pairwise sum A+B = {x+y  x ∈ A, y ∈ B}. A system with ..."
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Cited by 6 (3 self)
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Systems of equations over sets of natural numbers (or, equivalently, language equations over a oneletter alphabet) of the form Xi = ϕi(X1,..., Xn) (1 � i � n) are considered. Expressions ϕi may contain the operations of union, intersection and pairwise sum A+B = {x+y  x ∈ A, y ∈ B}. A system with an EXPTIMEcomplete least solution is constructed, and it is established that least solutions of all such systems are in EXPTIME. The general membership problem for these equations is proved to be EXPTIMEcomplete.
On language equations with onesided concatenation
, 2012
"... Language equations are equations where both the constants occurring in the equations and the solutions are formal languages. They have first been introduced in formal language theory, but are now also considered in other areas of computer science. In the present paper, we restrict the attention to ..."
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Cited by 3 (3 self)
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Language equations are equations where both the constants occurring in the equations and the solutions are formal languages. They have first been introduced in formal language theory, but are now also considered in other areas of computer science. In the present paper, we restrict the attention to language equations with onesided concatenation, but in contrast to previous work on these equations, we allow not just union but all Boolean operations to be used when formulating them. In addition, we are not just interested in deciding solvability of such equations, but also in deciding other properties of the set of solutions, like its cardinality (finite, infinite, uncountable) and whether it contains least/greatest solutions. We show that all these decision problems are EXPTIMEcomplete.
The dual of concatenation
, 2005
"... A binary languagetheoretic operation is proposed, which is dual to the concatenation of languages in the same sense as the universal quantifier in logic is dual to the existential quantifier; the dual of Kleene star is defined accordingly. These operations arise whenever concatenation or star appea ..."
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Cited by 3 (2 self)
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A binary languagetheoretic operation is proposed, which is dual to the concatenation of languages in the same sense as the universal quantifier in logic is dual to the existential quantifier; the dual of Kleene star is defined accordingly. These operations arise whenever concatenation or star appear in the scope of negation. The basic properties of the new operations are determined in the paper. Their use in regular expressions and in language equations is considered, and it is shown that they often eliminate the need of using negation, at the same time having an important technical advantage of being monotone. A generalization of contextfree grammars featuring dual concatenation is introduced and proved to be equivalent to the recently studied Boolean grammars.
Canonical decomposition of a catenation of factorial languages
 Siberian Electronic Mathematical Reports 4 (2007) 14–22
"... Abstract. According to a previous result by S. V. Avgustinovich and the author, each factorial language admits a unique canonical decomposition to a catenation of factorial languages. In this paper, we analyze the appearance of the canonical decomposition of a catenation of two factorial languages w ..."
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Abstract. According to a previous result by S. V. Avgustinovich and the author, each factorial language admits a unique canonical decomposition to a catenation of factorial languages. In this paper, we analyze the appearance of the canonical decomposition of a catenation of two factorial languages whose canonical decompositions are given. 1.
Seven families of language equations
, 2007
"... Equations with formal languages as unknowns are among the most natural objects of study in language theory. The research of their properties dates back to a paper by Ginsburg and Rice [1962], in which the semantics of the contextfree grammars was equivalently defined using systems of equations of t ..."
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Equations with formal languages as unknowns are among the most natural objects of study in language theory. The research of their properties dates back to a paper by Ginsburg and Rice [1962], in which the semantics of the contextfree grammars was equivalently defined using systems of equations of the basic form
Complex algebras of arithmetic
, 2009
"... An arithmetic circuit is a labeled, acyclic directed graph specifying a sequence of arithmetic and logical operations to be performed on sets of natural numbers. Arithmetic circuits can also be viewed as the elements of the smallest subalgebra of the complex algebra of the semiring of natural number ..."
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An arithmetic circuit is a labeled, acyclic directed graph specifying a sequence of arithmetic and logical operations to be performed on sets of natural numbers. Arithmetic circuits can also be viewed as the elements of the smallest subalgebra of the complex algebra of the semiring of natural numbers. In the present paper we investigate the algebraic structure of complex algebras of natural numbers and make some observations regarding the complexity of various theories of such algebras.