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PseudoRandom Generation from OneWay Functions
 PROC. 20TH STOC
, 1988
"... Pseudorandom generators are fundamental to many theoretical and applied aspects of computing. We show howto construct a pseudorandom generator from any oneway function. Since it is easy to construct a oneway function from a pseudorandom generator, this result shows that there is a pseudorandom gene ..."
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Cited by 887 (22 self)
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Pseudorandom generators are fundamental to many theoretical and applied aspects of computing. We show howto construct a pseudorandom generator from any oneway function. Since it is easy to construct a oneway function from a pseudorandom generator, this result shows that there is a pseudorandom generator iff there is a oneway function.
Universal OneWay Hash Functions and their Cryptographic Applications
, 1989
"... We define a Universal OneWay Hash Function family, a new primitive which enables the compression of elements in the function domain. The main property of this primitive is that given an element x in the domain, it is computationally hard to find a different domain element which collides with x. We ..."
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Cited by 357 (15 self)
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We define a Universal OneWay Hash Function family, a new primitive which enables the compression of elements in the function domain. The main property of this primitive is that given an element x in the domain, it is computationally hard to find a different domain element which collides with x. We prove constructively that universal oneway hash functions exist if any 11 oneway functions exist. Among the various applications of the primitive is a OneWay based Secure Digital Signature Scheme which is existentially secure against adoptive attacks. Previously, all provably secure signature schemes were based on the stronger mathematical assumption that trapdoor oneway functions exist. Key words. cryptography, randomized algorithms AMS subject classifications. 68M10, 68Q20, 68Q22, 68R05, 68R10 Part of this work was done while the authors were at the IBM Almaden Research Center. The first author was supported in part by NSF grant CCR88 13632. A preliminary version of this work app...
Numbertheoretic constructions of efficient pseudorandom functions
 In 38th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science
, 1997
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PublicKey Cryptosystems from Lattice Reduction Problems
, 1996
"... We present a new proposal for a trapdoor oneway function, from whichwe derive publickey encryption and digital signatures. The security of the new construction is based on the conjectured computational difficulty of latticereduction problems, providing a possible alternative to existing publicke ..."
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Cited by 148 (4 self)
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We present a new proposal for a trapdoor oneway function, from whichwe derive publickey encryption and digital signatures. The security of the new construction is based on the conjectured computational difficulty of latticereduction problems, providing a possible alternative to existing publickey encryption algorithms and digital signatures such as RSA and DSS.
PublicKey Cryptosystems Resilient to Key Leakage
"... Most of the work in the analysis of cryptographic schemes is concentrated in abstract adversarial models that do not capture sidechannel attacks. Such attacks exploit various forms of unintended information leakage, which is inherent to almost all physical implementations. Inspired by recent sidec ..."
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Cited by 89 (6 self)
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Most of the work in the analysis of cryptographic schemes is concentrated in abstract adversarial models that do not capture sidechannel attacks. Such attacks exploit various forms of unintended information leakage, which is inherent to almost all physical implementations. Inspired by recent sidechannel attacks, especially the “cold boot attacks ” of Halderman et al. (USENIX Security ’08), Akavia, Goldwasser and Vaikuntanathan (TCC ’09) formalized a realistic framework for modeling the security of encryption schemes against a wide class of sidechannel attacks in which adversarially chosen functions of the secret key are leaked. In the setting of publickey encryption, Akavia et al. showed that Regev’s latticebased scheme (STOC ’05) is resilient to any leakage of
Quantum Computation and Lattice Problems
 Proc. 43rd Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science
, 2002
"... We present the first explicit connection between quantum computation and lattice problems. Namely, we show a solution to the uniqueSVP under the assumption that there exists... ..."
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Cited by 74 (4 self)
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We present the first explicit connection between quantum computation and lattice problems. Namely, we show a solution to the uniqueSVP under the assumption that there exists...
Perfect ZeroKnowledge Arguments for NP Using any OneWay Permutation
 Journal of Cryptology
, 1998
"... "Perfect zeroknowledge arguments" is a cryptographic primitive which allows one polynomialtime player to convince another polynomialtime player of the validity of an NP statement, without revealing any additional information (in the informationtheoretic sense). Here the security achi ..."
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Cited by 64 (6 self)
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"Perfect zeroknowledge arguments" is a cryptographic primitive which allows one polynomialtime player to convince another polynomialtime player of the validity of an NP statement, without revealing any additional information (in the informationtheoretic sense). Here the security achieved is online: in order to cheat and validate a false theorem, the prover must break a cryptographic assumption online during the conversation, while the verifier cannot find (ever) any information unconditionally. Despite their practical and theoretical importance, it was only known how to implement zeroknowledge arguments based on specific algebraic assumptions. In this paper, we show a general construction, which can be based on any oneway permutation. The result is obtained by a construction of an informationtheoretic secure bitcommitment protocol. The protocol is efficient (both parties are polynomial time) and can be based on any oneway permutation. A preliminary version of this ...
The rise and fall of knapsack cryptosystems
 In Cryptology and Computational Number Theory
, 1990
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Cryptanalysis of the GoldreichGoldwasserHalevi Cryptosystem from Crypto '97
, 1999
"... Recent results of Ajtai on the hardness of lattice problems have inspired several cryptographic protocols. At Crypto '97, Goldreich, Goldwasser and Halevi proposed a publickey cryptosystem based on the closest vector problem in a lattice, which is known to be NPhard. We show that there i ..."
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Cited by 54 (6 self)
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Recent results of Ajtai on the hardness of lattice problems have inspired several cryptographic protocols. At Crypto '97, Goldreich, Goldwasser and Halevi proposed a publickey cryptosystem based on the closest vector problem in a lattice, which is known to be NPhard. We show that there is a major flaw in the design of the scheme which has two implications: any ciphertext leaks information on the plaintext, and the problem of decrypting ciphertexts can be reduced to a special closest vector problem which is much easier than the general problem. As an application, we solved four out of the five numerical challenges proposed on the Internet by the authors of the cryptosystem. At least two of those four challenges were conjectured to be intractable. We discuss ways to prevent the flaw, but conclude that, even modified, the scheme cannot provide sufficient security without being impractical.
An Efficient Existentially Unforgeable Signature Scheme and its Applications
 Journal of Cryptology
, 1994
"... A signature scheme is existentially unforgeable if, given any polynomial (in the security parameter) number of pairs (m 1 ; S(m 1 )); (m 2 ; S(m 2 )); : : : (m k ; S(m k )) where S(m) denotes the signature on the message m, it is computationally infeasible to generate a pair (m k+1 ; S(m k+1 )) fo ..."
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Cited by 51 (5 self)
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A signature scheme is existentially unforgeable if, given any polynomial (in the security parameter) number of pairs (m 1 ; S(m 1 )); (m 2 ; S(m 2 )); : : : (m k ; S(m k )) where S(m) denotes the signature on the message m, it is computationally infeasible to generate a pair (m k+1 ; S(m k+1 )) for any message m k+1 = 2 fm 1 ; : : : m k g. We present an existentially unforgeable signature scheme that for a reasonable setting of parameters requires at most 6 times the amount of time needed to generate a signature using "plain" RSA (which is not existentially unforgeable). We point out applications where our scheme is desirable. Preliminary version appeared in Crypto'94 y IBM Research Division, Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Road, San Jose, CA 95120. Research supported by a BSF Grant 32000321. Email: dwork@almaden.ibm.com. z Incumbent of the Morris and Rose Goldman Career Development Chair, Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Weizmann Institute of Science, Re...