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Fast Algorithms for Mining Association Rules
, 1994
"... We consider the problem of discovering association rules between items in a large database of sales transactions. We present two new algorithms for solving this problem that are fundamentally different from the known algorithms. Empirical evaluation shows that these algorithms outperform the known a ..."
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Cited by 3551 (15 self)
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We consider the problem of discovering association rules between items in a large database of sales transactions. We present two new algorithms for solving this problem that are fundamentally different from the known algorithms. Empirical evaluation shows that these algorithms outperform the known algorithms by factors ranging from three for small problems to more than an order of magnitude for large problems. We also show how the best features of the two proposed algorithms can be combined into a hybrid algorithm, called AprioriHybrid. Scaleup experiments show that AprioriHybrid scales linearly with the number of transactions. AprioriHybrid also has excellent scaleup properties with respect to the transaction size and the number of items in the database.
ℓdiversity: Privacy beyond kanonymity
 IN ICDE
, 2006
"... Publishing data about individuals without revealing sensitive information about them is an important problem. In recent years, a new definition of privacy called kanonymity has gained popularity. In a kanonymized dataset, each record is indistinguishable from at least k − 1 other records with resp ..."
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Cited by 649 (12 self)
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Publishing data about individuals without revealing sensitive information about them is an important problem. In recent years, a new definition of privacy called kanonymity has gained popularity. In a kanonymized dataset, each record is indistinguishable from at least k − 1 other records with respect to certain “identifying ” attributes. In this paper we show using two simple attacks that a kanonymized dataset has some subtle, but severe privacy problems. First, an attacker can discover the values of sensitive attributes when there is little diversity in those sensitive attributes. This kind of attack is a known problem [60]. Second, attackers often have background knowledge, and we show that kanonymity does not guarantee privacy against attackers using background knowledge. We give a detailed analysis of these two attacks and we propose a novel and powerful privacy criterion called ℓdiversity that can defend against such attacks. In addition to building a formal foundation for ℓdiversity, we show in an experimental evaluation that ℓdiversity is practical and can be implemented efficiently.
Data Mining: An Overview from Database Perspective
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON KNOWLEDGE AND DATA ENGINEERING
, 1996
"... Mining information and knowledge from large databases has been recognized by many researchers as a key research topic in database systems and machine learning, and by many industrial companies as an important area with an opportunity of major revenues. Researchers in many different fields have sh ..."
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Cited by 514 (26 self)
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Mining information and knowledge from large databases has been recognized by many researchers as a key research topic in database systems and machine learning, and by many industrial companies as an important area with an opportunity of major revenues. Researchers in many different fields have shown great interest in data mining. Several emerging applications in information providing services, such as data warehousing and online services over the Internet, also call for various data mining techniques to better understand user behavior, to improve the service provided, and to increase the business opportunities. In response to such a demand, this article is to provide a survey, from a database researcher's point of view, on the data mining techniques developed recently. A classification of the available data mining techniques is provided and a comparative study of such techniques is presented.
An efficient algorithm for mining association rules in large databases
, 1995
"... Mining for a.ssociation rules between items in a large database of sales transactions has been described as an important database mining problem. In this paper we present an efficient algorithm for mining association rules that is fundamentally different from known algorithms. Compared to previous ..."
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Cited by 431 (0 self)
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Mining for a.ssociation rules between items in a large database of sales transactions has been described as an important database mining problem. In this paper we present an efficient algorithm for mining association rules that is fundamentally different from known algorithms. Compared to previous algorithms, our algorithm not only reduces the I/O overhead significantly but also has lower CPU overhead for most cases. We have performed extensive experiments and compared the performance of our algorithm with one of the best existing algorithms. It was found that for large databases, the CPU overhead was reduced by as much as a factor of four and I/O was reduced by almost an order of magnitude. Hence this algorithm is especially suitable for very large size databases. 1
An effective hashbased algorithm for mining association rules
, 1995
"... In this paper, we examine the issue of mining association rules among items in a large database of sales transactions. The mining of association rules can be mapped into the problem of discovering large itemsets where a large itemset is a group of items which appear in a sufficient number of transac ..."
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Cited by 278 (3 self)
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In this paper, we examine the issue of mining association rules among items in a large database of sales transactions. The mining of association rules can be mapped into the problem of discovering large itemsets where a large itemset is a group of items which appear in a sufficient number of transactions. The problem of discovering large itemsets can be solved by constructing a candidate set of itemsets first and then, identifying, within this candidate set, those itemsets that meet the large itemset requirement. Generally this is done iteratively for each large kitemset in increasing order of k where a large kitemset is a large itemset with k items. To determine large itemsets from a huge number of candidate large itemsets in early iterations is usually the dominating factor for the overall data mining performance. To address this issue, we propose an effective hashbased algorithm for the candidate set generation. Explicitly, the number of candidate 2itemsets generated by the proposed algorithm is, in orders of magnitude, smaller than that by previous methods, thus resolving the performance bottleneck. Note that the generation of smaller candidate sets enables us to effectively trim the transaction database size at a much earlier stage of the iterations, thereby reducing the computational cost for later iterations significantly. Extensive simulation study is conducted to evaluate performance of the proposed algorithm. 1
Efficient Algorithms for Discovering Association Rules
, 1994
"... Association rules are statements of the form "for 90 % of the rows of the relation, if the row has value 1 in the columns in set W , then it has 1 also in column B". Agrawal, Imielinski, and Swami introduced the problem of mining association rules from large collections of data, and gave a ..."
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Cited by 235 (12 self)
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Association rules are statements of the form "for 90 % of the rows of the relation, if the row has value 1 in the columns in set W , then it has 1 also in column B". Agrawal, Imielinski, and Swami introduced the problem of mining association rules from large collections of data, and gave a method based on successive passes over the database. We give an improved algorithm for the problem. The method is based on careful combinatorial analysis of the information obtained in previous passes; this makes it possible to eliminate unnecessary candidate rules. Experiments on a university course enrollment database indicate that the method outperforms the previous one by a factor of 5. We also show that sampling is in general a very efficient way of finding such rules. Keywords: association rules, covering sets, algorithms, sampling. 1 Introduction Data mining (database mining, knowledge discovery in databases) has recently been recognized as a promising new field in the intersection of databa...
Efficient data mining for path traversal patterns
 IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
, 1998
"... Abstract—In this paper, we explore a new data mining capability that involves mining path traversal patterns in a distributed informationproviding environment where documents or objects are linked together to facilitate interactive access. Our solution procedure consists of two steps. First, we der ..."
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Cited by 206 (16 self)
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Abstract—In this paper, we explore a new data mining capability that involves mining path traversal patterns in a distributed informationproviding environment where documents or objects are linked together to facilitate interactive access. Our solution procedure consists of two steps. First, we derive an algorithm to convert the original sequence of log data into a set of maximal forward references. By doing so, we can filter out the effect of some backward references, which are mainly made for ease of traveling and concentrate on mining meaningful user access sequences. Second, we derive algorithms to determine the frequent traversal patterns¦i.e., large reference sequences¦from the maximal forward references obtained. Two algorithms are devised for determining large reference sequences; one is based on some hashing and pruning techniques, and the other is further improved with the option of determining large reference sequences in batch so as to reduce the number of database scans required. Performance of these two methods is comparatively analyzed. It is shown that the option of selective scan is very advantageous and can lead to prominent performance improvement. Sensitivity analysis on various parameters is conducted. Index Terms—Data mining, traversal patterns, distributed information system, World Wide Web, performance analysis.
On kanonymity and the curse of dimensionality
 In VLDB
, 2005
"... In recent years, the wide availability of personal data has made the problem of privacy preserving data mining an important one. A number of methods have recently been proposed for privacy preserving data mining of multidimensional data records. One of the methods for privacy preserving data mining ..."
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Cited by 171 (4 self)
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In recent years, the wide availability of personal data has made the problem of privacy preserving data mining an important one. A number of methods have recently been proposed for privacy preserving data mining of multidimensional data records. One of the methods for privacy preserving data mining is that of anonymization, in which a record is released only if it is indistinguishable from k other entities in the data. We note that methods such as kanonymity are highly dependent upon spatial locality in order to effectively implement the technique in a statistically robust way. In high dimensional space the data becomes sparse, and the concept of spatial locality is no longer easy to define from an application point of view. In this paper, we view the kanonymization problem from the perspective of inference attacks over all possible combinations of attributes. We show that when the data contains a large number of attributes which may be considered quasiidentifiers, it becomes difficult to anonymize the data without an unacceptably high amount of information loss. This is because an exponential number of combinations of dimensions can be used to make precise inference attacks, even when individual attributes are partially specified within a range. We provide an analysis of the effect of dimensionality on kanonymity methods. We conclude that when a data set contains a large number of attributes which
A New SQLlike Operator for Mining Association Rules
 IN: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 22TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON VERY LARGE DATA BASES (VLDB
, 1996
"... Data mining evolved as a collection of applicative problems and efficient solution algorithms relative to rather peculiar problems, all focused on the discovery of relevant information hidden in databases of huge dimensions. In particular, one of the most investigated topics is the discovery of as ..."
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Cited by 159 (6 self)
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Data mining evolved as a collection of applicative problems and efficient solution algorithms relative to rather peculiar problems, all focused on the discovery of relevant information hidden in databases of huge dimensions. In particular, one of the most investigated topics is the discovery of association rules. This work proposes a unifying model that enables a uniform description of the problem of discovering association rules. The model provides SQLlike operator, named MINE RULE, which is capable of expressing all the problems presented so far in the literature concerning the mining of association rules. We demonstrate the expressive power of the new operator by means of several examples, some of which are classical, while some others are fully original and correspond to novel and unusual applications. We also present the operational semantics of the operator by means of an extended relational algebra.
Discovering Generalized Episodes Using Minimal Occurrences
 In KDD ’96: Proc. 2nd International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining
, 1996
"... Sequences of events are an important special form of data that arises in several contexts, including telecommunications, user interface studies, and epidemiology. We present a general and flexible framework of specifying classes of generalized episodes. These are recurrent combinations of events sat ..."
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Cited by 148 (8 self)
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Sequences of events are an important special form of data that arises in several contexts, including telecommunications, user interface studies, and epidemiology. We present a general and flexible framework of specifying classes of generalized episodes. These are recurrent combinations of events satisfying certain conditions. The framework can be instantiated to a wide variety of applications by selecting suitable primitive conditions. We present algorithms for discovering frequently occurring episodes and episode rules. The algorithms are based on the use of minimal occurrences of episodes; this makes it possible to evaluate confidences of a wide variety of rules using only a single analysis pass. We present empirical results on t,he behavior of t.he algorithms on events stemming from a WWW log.