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248
An Experimental Comparison of MinCut/MaxFlow Algorithms for Energy Minimization in Vision
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 2001
"... After [10, 15, 12, 2, 4] minimum cut/maximum flow algorithms on graphs emerged as an increasingly useful tool for exact or approximate energy minimization in lowlevel vision. The combinatorial optimization literature provides many mincut/maxflow algorithms with different polynomial time compl ..."
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Cited by 1311 (54 self)
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After [10, 15, 12, 2, 4] minimum cut/maximum flow algorithms on graphs emerged as an increasingly useful tool for exact or approximate energy minimization in lowlevel vision. The combinatorial optimization literature provides many mincut/maxflow algorithms with different polynomial time complexity. Their practical efficiency, however, has to date been studied mainly outside the scope of computer vision. The goal of this paper
"GrabCut”  interactive foreground extraction using iterated graph cuts
 ACM TRANS. GRAPH
, 2004
"... The problem of efficient, interactive foreground/background segmentation in still images is of great practical importance in image editing. Classical image segmentation tools use either texture (colour) information, e.g. Magic Wand, or edge (contrast) information, e.g. Intelligent Scissors. Recently ..."
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Cited by 1140 (36 self)
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The problem of efficient, interactive foreground/background segmentation in still images is of great practical importance in image editing. Classical image segmentation tools use either texture (colour) information, e.g. Magic Wand, or edge (contrast) information, e.g. Intelligent Scissors. Recently, an approach based on optimization by graphcut has been developed which successfully combines both types of information. In this paper we extend the graphcut approach in three respects. First, we have developed a more powerful, iterative version of the optimisation. Secondly, the power of the iterative algorithm is used to simplify substantially the user interaction needed for a given quality of result. Thirdly, a robust algorithm for “border matting ” has been developed to estimate simultaneously the alphamatte around an object boundary and the colours of foreground pixels. We show that for moderately difficult examples the proposed method outperforms competitive tools.
What energy functions can be minimized via graph cuts?
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 2004
"... In the last few years, several new algorithms based on graph cuts have been developed to solve energy minimization problems in computer vision. Each of these techniques constructs a graph such that the minimum cut on the graph also minimizes the energy. Yet, because these graph constructions are co ..."
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Cited by 1047 (23 self)
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In the last few years, several new algorithms based on graph cuts have been developed to solve energy minimization problems in computer vision. Each of these techniques constructs a graph such that the minimum cut on the graph also minimizes the energy. Yet, because these graph constructions are complex and highly specific to a particular energy function, graph cuts have seen limited application to date. In this paper, we give a characterization of the energy functions that can be minimized by graph cuts. Our results are restricted to functions of binary variables. However, our work generalizes many previous constructions and is easily applicable to vision problems that involve large numbers of labels, such as stereo, motion, image restoration, and scene reconstruction. We give a precise characterization of what energy functions can be minimized using graph cuts, among the energy functions that can be written as a sum of terms containing three or fewer binary variables. We also provide a generalpurpose construction to minimize such an energy function. Finally, we give a necessary condition for any energy function of binary variables to be minimized by graph cuts. Researchers who are considering the use of graph cuts to optimize a particular energy function can use our results to determine if this is possible and then follow our construction to create the appropriate graph. A software implementation is freely available.
Graph Cuts and Efficient ND Image Segmentation
, 2006
"... Combinatorial graph cut algorithms have been successfully applied to a wide range of problems in vision and graphics. This paper focusses on possibly the simplest application of graphcuts: segmentation of objects in image data. Despite its simplicity, this application epitomizes the best features ..."
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Cited by 304 (7 self)
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Combinatorial graph cut algorithms have been successfully applied to a wide range of problems in vision and graphics. This paper focusses on possibly the simplest application of graphcuts: segmentation of objects in image data. Despite its simplicity, this application epitomizes the best features of combinatorial graph cuts methods in vision: global optima, practical efficiency, numerical robustness, ability to fuse a wide range of visual cues and constraints, unrestricted topological properties of segments, and applicability to ND problems. Graph cuts based approaches to object extraction have also been shown to have interesting connections with earlier segmentation methods such as snakes, geodesic active contours, and levelsets. The segmentation energies optimized by graph cuts combine boundary regularization with regionbased properties in the same fashion as MumfordShah style functionals. We present motivation and detailed technical description of the basic combinatorial optimization framework for image segmentation via s/t graph cuts. After the general concept of using binary graph cut algorithms for object segmentation was first proposed and tested in Boykov and Jolly (2001), this idea was widely studied in computer vision and graphics communities. We provide links to a large number of known extensions based on iterative parameter reestimation and learning, multiscale or hierarchical approaches, narrow bands, and other techniques for demanding photo, video, and medical applications.
Multiview Stereo via Volumetric Graphcuts and Occlusion Robust PhotoConsistency
, 2007
"... This paper presents a volumetric formulation for the multiview stereo problem which is amenable to a computationally tractable global optimisation using Graphcuts. Our approach is to seek the optimal partitioning of 3D space into two regions labelled as ‘object’ and ‘empty’ under a cost functional ..."
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Cited by 187 (9 self)
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This paper presents a volumetric formulation for the multiview stereo problem which is amenable to a computationally tractable global optimisation using Graphcuts. Our approach is to seek the optimal partitioning of 3D space into two regions labelled as ‘object’ and ‘empty’ under a cost functional consisting of the following two terms: (1) A term that forces the boundary between the two regions to pass through photoconsistent locations and (2) a ballooning term that inflates the ‘object ’ region. To take account of the effect of occlusion on the first term we use an occlusion robust photoconsistency metric based on Normalised Cross Correlation, which does not assume any geometric knowledge about the reconstructed object. The globally optimal 3D partitioning can be obtained as the minimum cut solution of a weighted graph.
Fast approximate energy minimization with label costs
, 2010
"... The αexpansion algorithm [7] has had a significant impact in computer vision due to its generality, effectiveness, and speed. Thus far it can only minimize energies that involve unary, pairwise, and specialized higherorder terms. Our main contribution is to extend αexpansion so that it can simult ..."
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Cited by 108 (9 self)
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The αexpansion algorithm [7] has had a significant impact in computer vision due to its generality, effectiveness, and speed. Thus far it can only minimize energies that involve unary, pairwise, and specialized higherorder terms. Our main contribution is to extend αexpansion so that it can simultaneously optimize “label costs ” as well. An energy with label costs can penalize a solution based on the set of labels that appear in it. The simplest special case is to penalize the number of labels in the solution. Our energy is quite general, and we prove optimality bounds for our algorithm. A natural application of label costs is multimodel fitting, and we demonstrate several such applications in vision: homography detection, motion segmentation, and unsupervised image segmentation. Our C++/MATLAB implementation is publicly available.
Multiview stereo reconstruction and scene flow estimation with a global imagebased matching score
 The International Journal of Computer Vision
, 2006
"... Abstract. We present a new variational method for multiview stereovision and nonrigid threedimensional motion estimation from multiple video sequences. Our method minimizes the prediction error of the shape and motion estimates. Both problems then translate into a generic image registration task. ..."
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Cited by 101 (14 self)
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Abstract. We present a new variational method for multiview stereovision and nonrigid threedimensional motion estimation from multiple video sequences. Our method minimizes the prediction error of the shape and motion estimates. Both problems then translate into a generic image registration task. The latter is entrusted to a global measure of image similarity, chosen depending on imaging conditions and scene properties. Contrarily to existing deformable surfaces methods, which integrate a matching measure computed independently at each surface point, our approach computes a global imagebased matching score between the input images and the predicted images. The matching process fully handles projective distortion and partial occlusions. Neighborhood as well as global intensity information can be exploited to improve the robustness to appearance changes due to nonLambertian materials and illumination changes, without any approximation of shape, motion or visibility. Moreover, our approach results in a simpler, more flexible, and more efficient implementation than in existing methods. The computation time on large datasets does not exceed thirty minutes on a standard workstation. Finally, our method is compliant with a hardware implementation with graphics processor units. Our stereovision algorithm yields very good results on a variety of datasets including specularities and translucency. We have successfully tested our motion estimation algorithm on a very challenging multiview video sequence of a nonrigid scene.
Motion Layer Extraction in the Presence of Occlusion Using Graph Cuts
, 2005
"... Extracting layers from video is very important for video representation, analysis, compression, and synthesis. Assuming that a scene can be approximately described by multiple planar regions, this paper describes a robust and novel approach to automatically extract a set of affine or projective tra ..."
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Cited by 98 (9 self)
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Extracting layers from video is very important for video representation, analysis, compression, and synthesis. Assuming that a scene can be approximately described by multiple planar regions, this paper describes a robust and novel approach to automatically extract a set of affine or projective transformations induced by these regions, detect the occlusion pixels over multiple consecutive frames, and segment the scene into several motion layers. First, after determining a number of seed regions using correspondences in two frames, we expand the seed regions and reject the outliers employing the graph cuts method integrated with level set representation. Next, these initial regions are merged into several initial layers according to the motion similarity. Third, an occlusion order constraint on multiple frames is explored, which enforces that the occlusion area increases with the temporal order in a short period and effectively maintains segmentation consistency over multiple consecutive frames. Then, the correct layer segmentation is obtained by using a graph cuts algorithm and the occlusions between the overlapping layers are explicitly determined. Several experimental results are demonstrated to show that our approach is effective and robust.
Image Restoration with Discrete Constrained Total Variation Part I: Fast and Exact Optimization
, 2006
"... This paper deals with the total variation minimization problem in image restoration for convex data fidelity functionals. We propose a new and fast algorithm which computes an exact solution in the discrete framework. Our method relies on the decomposition of an image into its level sets. It maps ..."
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Cited by 94 (10 self)
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This paper deals with the total variation minimization problem in image restoration for convex data fidelity functionals. We propose a new and fast algorithm which computes an exact solution in the discrete framework. Our method relies on the decomposition of an image into its level sets. It maps the original problems into independent binary Markov Random Field optimization problems at each level. Exact solutions of these binary problems are found thanks to minimum cost cut techniques in graphs. These binary solutions are proved to be monotone increasing with levels and yield thus an exact solution of the discrete original problem. Furthermore we show that minimization of total variation under L1 data fidelity term yields a selfdual contrast invariant filter. Finally we present some results.