Results 1  10
of
320
Nonparametric estimation of average treatment effects under exogeneity: a review
 REVIEW OF ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS
, 2004
"... Recently there has been a surge in econometric work focusing on estimating average treatment effects under various sets of assumptions. One strand of this literature has developed methods for estimating average treatment effects for a binary treatment under assumptions variously described as exogen ..."
Abstract

Cited by 597 (26 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Recently there has been a surge in econometric work focusing on estimating average treatment effects under various sets of assumptions. One strand of this literature has developed methods for estimating average treatment effects for a binary treatment under assumptions variously described as exogeneity, unconfoundedness, or selection on observables. The implication of these assumptions is that systematic (for example, average or distributional) differences in outcomes between treated and control units with the same values for the covariates are attributable to the treatment. Recent analysis has considered estimation and inference for average treatment effects under weaker assumptions than typical of the earlier literature by avoiding distributional and functionalform assumptions. Various methods of semiparametric estimation have been proposed, including estimating the unknown regression functions, matching, methods using the propensity score such as weighting and blocking, and combinations of these approaches. In this paper I review the state of this
Direct and Indirect Effects
, 2005
"... The direct effect of one event on another can be defined and measured by holding constant all intermediate variables between the two. Indirect effects present conceptual and practical difficulties (in nonlinear models), because they cannot be isolated by holding certain variables constant. This pape ..."
Abstract

Cited by 134 (27 self)
 Add to MetaCart
The direct effect of one event on another can be defined and measured by holding constant all intermediate variables between the two. Indirect effects present conceptual and practical difficulties (in nonlinear models), because they cannot be isolated by holding certain variables constant. This paper presents a new way of defining the effect transmitted through a restricted set of paths, without controlling variables on the remaining paths. This permits the assessment of a more natural type of direct and indirect effects, one that is applicable in both linear and nonlinear models and that has broader policyrelated interpretations. The paper establishes conditions under which such assessments can be estimated consistently from experimental and nonexperimental data, and thus extends pathanalytic techniques to nonlinear and nonparametric models.
Longrun effects of public sector sponsored training
, 2004
"... Between 1991 and 1997 West Germany spent on average about 3.6 bn Euro per year on public sector sponsored training programmes for the unemployed. We base our empirical analysis on a new administrative data base that plausibly allows for selectivity correction by microeconometric matching methods. We ..."
Abstract

Cited by 122 (31 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Between 1991 and 1997 West Germany spent on average about 3.6 bn Euro per year on public sector sponsored training programmes for the unemployed. We base our empirical analysis on a new administrative data base that plausibly allows for selectivity correction by microeconometric matching methods. We identify the effects of different types of training programmes over a horizon of more than seven years. Using bias corrected weighted multiple neighbours matching we find that all programmes have negative effects in the short run and positive effects over a horizon of about four years. However, for substantive training programmes with duration of about two years gains in employment probabilities of more than 10 % points appear to be sustainable, but come at the price of large negative lockin effects.
Optimal Dynamic Treatment Regimes
 JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY, SERIES B (WITH
, 2002
"... ... this paper is to use experimental or observational data to estimate decision regimes that result in a maximal mean response. To explicate our objective and state assumptions, we use the potential outcomes model. The proposed method makes smooth, parametric assumptions only on quantities directly ..."
Abstract

Cited by 89 (13 self)
 Add to MetaCart
... this paper is to use experimental or observational data to estimate decision regimes that result in a maximal mean response. To explicate our objective and state assumptions, we use the potential outcomes model. The proposed method makes smooth, parametric assumptions only on quantities directly relevant to the goal of estimating the optimal rules. We illustrate the proposed methodology via a small simulation.
Demystifying double robustness: a comparison of alternative strategies for estimating a population mean from incomplete data
 Statist. Sci
, 2007
"... Abstract. When outcomes are missing for reasons beyond an investigator’s control, there are two different ways to adjust a parameter estimate for covariates that may be related both to the outcome and to missingness. One approach is to model the relationships between the covariates and the outcome a ..."
Abstract

Cited by 83 (0 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Abstract. When outcomes are missing for reasons beyond an investigator’s control, there are two different ways to adjust a parameter estimate for covariates that may be related both to the outcome and to missingness. One approach is to model the relationships between the covariates and the outcome and use those relationships to predict the missing values. Another is to model the probabilities of missingness given the covariates and incorporate them into a weighted or stratified estimate. Doubly robust (DR) procedures apply both types of model simultaneously and produce a consistent estimate of the parameter if either of the two models has been correctly specified. In this article, we show that DR estimates can be constructed in many ways. We compare the performance of various DR and nonDR estimates of a population mean in a simulated example where both models are incorrect but neither is grossly misspecified. Methods that use inverseprobabilities as weights, whether they are DR or not, are sensitive to
Causal Inference from Graphical Models
, 2001
"... Introduction The introduction of Bayesian networks (Pearl 1986b) and associated local computation algorithms (Lauritzen and Spiegelhalter 1988, Shenoy and Shafer 1990, Jensen, Lauritzen and Olesen 1990) has initiated a renewed interest for understanding causal concepts in connection with modelling ..."
Abstract

Cited by 78 (6 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Introduction The introduction of Bayesian networks (Pearl 1986b) and associated local computation algorithms (Lauritzen and Spiegelhalter 1988, Shenoy and Shafer 1990, Jensen, Lauritzen and Olesen 1990) has initiated a renewed interest for understanding causal concepts in connection with modelling complex stochastic systems. It has become clear that graphical models, in particular those based upon directed acyclic graphs, have natural causal interpretations and thus form a base for a language in which causal concepts can be discussed and analysed in precise terms. As a consequence there has been an explosion of writings, not primarily within mainstream statistical literature, concerned with the exploitation of this language to clarify and extend causal concepts. Among these we mention in particular books by Spirtes, Glymour and Scheines (1993), Shafer (1996), and Pearl (2000) as well as the collection of papers in Glymour and Cooper (1999). Very briefly, but fundamentally,
Chain Graph Models and their Causal Interpretations
 B
, 2001
"... Chain graphs are a natural generalization of directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) and undirected graphs. However, the apparent simplicity of chain graphs belies the subtlety of the conditional independence hypotheses that they represent. There are a number of simple and apparently plausible, but ultim ..."
Abstract

Cited by 68 (7 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
Chain graphs are a natural generalization of directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) and undirected graphs. However, the apparent simplicity of chain graphs belies the subtlety of the conditional independence hypotheses that they represent. There are a number of simple and apparently plausible, but ultimately fallacious interpretations of chain graphs that are often invoked, implicitly or explicitly. These interpretations also lead to awed methods for applying background knowledge to model selection. We present a valid interpretation by showing how the distribution corresponding to a chain graph may be generated as the equilibrium distribution of dynamic models with feedback. These dynamic interpretations lead to a simple theory of intervention, extending the theory developed for DAGs. Finally, we contrast chain graph models under this interpretation with simultaneous equation models which have traditionally been used to model feedback in econometrics. Keywords: Causal model; cha...
Causal inference in statistics: An Overview
, 2009
"... This review presents empirical researcherswith recent advances in causal inference, and stresses the paradigmatic shifts that must be undertaken in moving from traditional statistical analysis to causal analysis of multivariate data. Special emphasis is placed on the assumptions that underly all ca ..."
Abstract

Cited by 61 (12 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
This review presents empirical researcherswith recent advances in causal inference, and stresses the paradigmatic shifts that must be undertaken in moving from traditional statistical analysis to causal analysis of multivariate data. Special emphasis is placed on the assumptions that underly all causal inferences, the languages used in formulating those assumptions, the conditional nature of all causal and counterfactual claims, and the methods that have been developed for the assessment of such claims. These advances are illustrated using a general theory of causation based on the Structural Causal Model (SCM) described in Pearl (2000a), which subsumes and unifies other approaches to causation, and provides a coherent mathematical foundation for the analysis of causes and counterfactuals. In particular, the paper surveys the development of mathematical tools for inferring (from a combination of data and assumptions) answers to three types of causal queries: (1) queries about the effects of potential interventions, (also called “causal effects ” or “policy evaluation”) (2) queries about probabilities of counterfactuals, (including assessment of “regret, ” “attribution” or “causes of effects”) and (3) queries about direct and indirect effects (also known as “mediation”). Finally, the paper defines the formal and conceptual relationships between the structural and potentialoutcome frameworks and presents tools for a symbiotic analysis that uses the strong features of both.
DecisionTheoretic Foundations for Causal Reasoning
 Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
, 1995
"... We present a definition of cause and effect in terms of decisiontheoretic primitives and thereby provide a principled foundation for causal reasoning. Our definition departs from the traditional view of causation in that causal assertions may vary with the set of decisions available. We argue that ..."
Abstract

Cited by 60 (10 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We present a definition of cause and effect in terms of decisiontheoretic primitives and thereby provide a principled foundation for causal reasoning. Our definition departs from the traditional view of causation in that causal assertions may vary with the set of decisions available. We argue that this approach provides added clarity to the notion of cause. Also in this paper, we examine the encoding of causal relationships in directed acyclic graphs. We describe a special class of influence diagrams, those in canonical form, and show its relationship to Pearl's representation of cause and effect. Finally, we show how canonical form facilitates counterfactual reasoning. 1. Introduction Knowledge of cause and effect is crucial for modeling the affects of actions. For example, if we observe a statistical correlation between smoking and lung cancer, we can not conclude from this observation alone that our chances of getting lung cancer will change if we stop smoking. If, however, we als...