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188
Asrigidaspossible shape manipulation
 ACM Trans. Graph
, 2005
"... We present an interactive system that lets a user move and deform a twodimensional shape without manually establishing a skeleton or freeform deformation (FFD) domain beforehand. The shape is represented by a triangle mesh and the user moves several vertices of the mesh as constrained handles. The ..."
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Cited by 189 (18 self)
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We present an interactive system that lets a user move and deform a twodimensional shape without manually establishing a skeleton or freeform deformation (FFD) domain beforehand. The shape is represented by a triangle mesh and the user moves several vertices of the mesh as constrained handles. The system then computes the positions of the remaining free vertices by minimizing the distortion of each triangle. While physically based simulation or iterative refinement can also be used for this purpose, they tend to be slow. We present a twostep closedform algorithm that achieves realtime interaction. The first step finds an appropriate rotation for each triangle and the second step adjusts its scale. The key idea is to use quadratic error metrics so that each minimization problem becomes a system of linear equations. After solving the simultaneous equations at the beginning of interaction, we can quickly find the positions of free vertices during interactive manipulation. Our approach successfully conveys a sense of rigidity of the shape, which is difficult in spacewarp approaches. With a multiplepoint input device, even beginners can easily move, rotate, and deform shapes at will.
Mesh Editing with PoissonBased Gradient Field Manipulation
 ACM TRANS. GRAPH
, 2004
"... In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to mesh editing with the Poisson equation as the theoretical foundation. The most distinctive feature of this approach is that it modifies the original mesh geometry implicitly through gradient field manipulation. Our approach can produce desirable and pl ..."
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Cited by 175 (17 self)
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In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to mesh editing with the Poisson equation as the theoretical foundation. The most distinctive feature of this approach is that it modifies the original mesh geometry implicitly through gradient field manipulation. Our approach can produce desirable and pleasing results for both global and local editing operations, such as deformation, object merging, and smoothing. With the help from a few novel interactive tools, these operations can be performed conveniently with a small amount of user interaction. Our technique has three key components, a basic mesh solver based on the Poisson equation, a gradient field manipulation scheme using local transforms, and a generalized boundary condition representation based on local frames. Experimental results indicate that our framework can outperform previous related mesh editing techniques.
Meshless deformations based on shape matching
 ACM TRANS. GRAPH
, 2005
"... We present a new approach for simulating deformable objects. The underlying model is geometrically motivated. It handles pointbased objects and does not need connectivity information. The approach does not require any preprocessing, is simple to compute, and provides unconditionally stable dynamic ..."
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Cited by 169 (12 self)
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We present a new approach for simulating deformable objects. The underlying model is geometrically motivated. It handles pointbased objects and does not need connectivity information. The approach does not require any preprocessing, is simple to compute, and provides unconditionally stable dynamic simulations. The main idea of our deformable model is to replace energies by geometric constraints and forces by distances of current positions to goal positions. These goal positions are determined via a generalized shape matching of an undeformed rest state with the current deformed state of the point cloud. Since points are always drawn towards welldefined locations, the overshooting problem of explicit integration schemes is eliminated. The versatility of the approach in terms of object representations that can be handled, the efficiency in terms of memory and computational complexity, and the unconditional stability of the dynamic simulation make the approach particularly interesting for games.
Image deformation using moving least squares
 ACM Trans. on Graph
, 2006
"... Figure 1: Deformation using Moving Least Squares. Original image with control points shown in blue (a). Moving Least Squares deformations using affine transformations (b), similarity transformations (c) and rigid transformations (d). We provide an image deformation method based on Moving Least Squar ..."
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Cited by 129 (2 self)
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Figure 1: Deformation using Moving Least Squares. Original image with control points shown in blue (a). Moving Least Squares deformations using affine transformations (b), similarity transformations (c) and rigid transformations (d). We provide an image deformation method based on Moving Least Squares using various classes of linear functions including affine, similarity and rigid transformations. These deformations are realistic and give the user the impression of manipulating realworld objects. We also allow the user to specify the deformations using either sets of points or line segments, the later useful for controlling curves and profiles present in the image. For each of these techniques, we provide simple closedform solutions that yield fast deformations, which can be performed in realtime.
AsRigidAsPossible Surface Modeling
 TO APPEAR AT THE EUROGRAPHICS SYMPOSIUM ON GEOMETRY PROCESSING
, 2007
"... Modeling tasks, such as surface deformation and editing, can be analyzed by observing the local behavior of the surface. We argue that defining a modeling operation by asking for rigidity of the local transformations is useful in various settings. Such formulation leads to a nonlinear, yet conceptu ..."
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Cited by 119 (7 self)
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Modeling tasks, such as surface deformation and editing, can be analyzed by observing the local behavior of the surface. We argue that defining a modeling operation by asking for rigidity of the local transformations is useful in various settings. Such formulation leads to a nonlinear, yet conceptually simple energy formulation, which is to be minimized by the deformed surface under particular modeling constraints. We devise a simple iterative mesh editing scheme based on this principle, that leads to detailpreserving and intuitive deformations. Our algorithm is effective and notably easy to implement, making it attractive for practical modeling applications.
Meshbased inverse kinematics
 ACM Trans. Graph
, 2005
"... The ability to position a small subset of mesh vertices and produce a meaningful overall deformation of the entire mesh is a fundamental task in mesh editing and animation. However, the class of meaningful deformations varies from mesh to mesh and depends on mesh kinematics, which prescribes valid m ..."
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Cited by 98 (8 self)
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The ability to position a small subset of mesh vertices and produce a meaningful overall deformation of the entire mesh is a fundamental task in mesh editing and animation. However, the class of meaningful deformations varies from mesh to mesh and depends on mesh kinematics, which prescribes valid mesh configurations, and a selection mechanism for choosing among them. Drawing an analogy to the traditional use of skeletonbased inverse kinematics for posing skeletons, we define meshbased inverse kinematics as the problem of finding meaningful mesh deformations that meet specified vertex constraints. Our solution relies on example meshes to indicate the class of meaningful deformations. Each example is represented with a feature vector of deformation gradients that capture the affine transformations which individual triangles undergo relative to a reference pose. To pose a mesh, our algorithm efficiently searches among all meshes with specified vertex positions to find the one that is closest to some pose in a nonlinear span of the example feature vectors. Since the search is not restricted to the span of example shapes, this produces compelling deformations even when the constraints require poses that are different from those observed in the examples. Furthermore, because the span is formed by a nonlinear blend of the example feature vectors, the blending component of our system may also be used independently to pose meshes by specifying blending weights or to compute multiway morph sequences.
Large mesh deformation using the volumetric graph Laplacian
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
"... We present a novel technique for large deformations on 3D meshes using the volumetric graph Laplacian. We first construct a graph representing the volume inside the input mesh. The graph need not form a solid meshing of the input mesh’s interior; its edges simply connect nearby points in the volume. ..."
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Cited by 88 (12 self)
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We present a novel technique for large deformations on 3D meshes using the volumetric graph Laplacian. We first construct a graph representing the volume inside the input mesh. The graph need not form a solid meshing of the input mesh’s interior; its edges simply connect nearby points in the volume. This graph’s Laplacian encodes volumetric details as the difference between each point in the graph and the average of its neighbors. Preserving these volumetric details during deformation imposes a volumetric constraint that prevents unnatural changes in volume. We also include in the graph points a short distance outside the mesh to avoid local selfintersections. Volumetric detail preservation is represented by a quadric energy function. Minimizing it preserves details in a leastsquares sense, distributing error uniformly over the whole deformed mesh. It can also be combined with conventional constraints involving surface positions, details or smoothness, and efficiently minimized by solving a sparse linear system. We apply this technique in a 2D curvebased deformation system allowing novice users to create pleasing deformations with little effort. A novel application of this system is to apply nonrigid and exaggerated deformations of 2D cartoon characters to 3D meshes. We demonstrate our system’s potential with several examples.
Geometric modeling in shape space
 In Proc. SIGGRAPH
, 2007
"... Figure 1: Geodesic interpolation and extrapolation. The blue input poses of the elephant are geodesically interpolated in an asisometricaspossible fashion (shown in green), and the resulting path is geodesically continued (shown in purple) to naturally extend the sequence. No semantic information, ..."
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Cited by 74 (8 self)
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Figure 1: Geodesic interpolation and extrapolation. The blue input poses of the elephant are geodesically interpolated in an asisometricaspossible fashion (shown in green), and the resulting path is geodesically continued (shown in purple) to naturally extend the sequence. No semantic information, segmentation, or knowledge of articulated components is used. We present a novel framework to treat shapes in the setting of Riemannian geometry. Shapes – triangular meshes or more generally straight line graphs in Euclidean space – are treated as points in a shape space. We introduce useful Riemannian metrics in this space to aid the user in design and modeling tasks, especially to explore the space of (approximately) isometric deformations of a given shape. Much of the work relies on an efficient algorithm to compute geodesics in shape spaces; to this end, we present a multiresolution framework to solve the interpolation problem – which amounts to solving a boundary value problem – as well as the extrapolation problem – an initial value problem – in shape space. Based on these two operations, several classical concepts like parallel transport and the exponential map can be used in shape space to solve various geometric modeling and geometry processing tasks. Applications include shape morphing, shape deformation, deformation transfer, and intuitive shape exploration.
Recent Advances in Mesh Morphing
, 2002
"... Meshes have become a widespread and popular representation of models in computer graphics. Morphing techniques aim at transforming a given source shape into a target shape. Morphing techniques have various applications ranging from special effects in television and movies to medical imaging and sc ..."
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Cited by 74 (0 self)
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Meshes have become a widespread and popular representation of models in computer graphics. Morphing techniques aim at transforming a given source shape into a target shape. Morphing techniques have various applications ranging from special effects in television and movies to medical imaging and scientific visualization. Not surprisingly, morphing techniques for meshes have received a lot of interest lately.
Harmonic guidance for surface deformation
 In Proc. of Eurographics 05
, 2005
"... We present an interactive method for applying deformations to a surface mesh while preserving its global shape and local properties. Two surface editing scenarios are discussed, which conceptually differ in the specification of deformations: Either interpolation constraints are imposed explicitly, e ..."
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Cited by 65 (15 self)
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We present an interactive method for applying deformations to a surface mesh while preserving its global shape and local properties. Two surface editing scenarios are discussed, which conceptually differ in the specification of deformations: Either interpolation constraints are imposed explicitly, e.g., by dragging a subset of vertices, or, deformation of a reference surface is mimicked. The contribution of this paper is a novel approach for interpolation of local deformations over the manifold and for efficiently establishing correspondence to a reference surface from only few pairs of markers. As a general tool for both scenarios, a harmonic field is constructed to guide the interpolation of constraints and to find correspondence required for deformation transfer. We show that our approach fits nicely in a unified mathematical framework, where the same type of linear operator is applied in all phases, and how this approach can be used to create an intuitive and interactive editing tool. Figure 1: A simple edit: The visualized harmonic field is used as guidance for bending the cactus (left). Here, the field is defined by one source (red) at the tip of the left arm and one sink (blue) below the middle of the trunk. The result is shown in the center image. Notice the different propagation of the rotation compared to the edit on the right, where three sources on all arms were chosen (without picture). 1.